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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF

THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF

THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission file number 001-18761

MONSTER BEVERAGE CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

    

47-1809393

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1 Monster Way
Corona, California 92879

(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (951) 739 - 6200

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.005 par value per share

MNST

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

Large accelerated filer

    

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.).     Yes No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $43,749,615,959 computed by reference to the closing sale price for such stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.005 par value per share (being the only class of common stock of the registrant), outstanding on February 16, 2022 was 529,358,860 shares.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement to be filed subsequent to the date hereof with the Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the conclusion of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

Table of Contents

MONSTER BEVERAGE CORPORATION

FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item Number

Page Number

    

PART I

1.

Business

3

1A.

Risk Factors

20

1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

40

2.

Properties

40

3.

Legal Proceedings

41

4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

41

PART II

5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

42

6.

[Reserved]

43

7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

44

7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

66

8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

66

9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

66

9A.

Controls and Procedures

67

9B.

Other Information

69

9C.

Disclosures Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

69

PART III

10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

69

11.

Executive Compensation

69

12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

69

13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

70

14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

70

PART IV

15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

71

16.

Form 10-K Summary

71

Signatures

74

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PART I

ITEM 1.           BUSINESS

When this report uses the words “the Company”, “we”, “us” and “our”, these words refer to Monster Beverage Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires. Based in Corona, California, Monster Beverage Corporation is a holding company and conducts no operating business, except through its consolidated subsidiaries. The Company’s subsidiaries primarily develop and market energy drinks.

Overview

We develop, market, sell and distribute energy drink beverages and concentrates for energy drink beverages, primarily under the following brand names:

     Monster Energy®

     Monster Energy Ultra®

     Monster Rehab®

     Monster Energy®Nitro

     Java Monster®

     Muscle Monster®

     Espresso Monster®

     Punch Monster®

     Juice Monster®

     Monster Hydro® Energy Water

     Monster Hydro® Super Sport

     Monster HydroSport Super Fuel®

     Monster Super Fuel®

     Monster Dragon Tea®

     Reign Total Body Fuel®

     Reign Inferno® Thermogenic Fuel

    

     NOS®

     Full Throttle®

     Burn®

     Mother®

     Nalu®

     Ultra Energy®

     Play® and Power Play® (stylized)

     Relentless®

     BPM®

     BU®

     Gladiator®

     Samurai®

     Live+®

     Predator®

     Fury®

     True North®

Industry Overview

The “alternative” beverage category combines non-carbonated, ready-to-drink iced teas, lemonades, juice cocktails, single-serve juices and fruit beverages, ready-to-drink dairy and coffee drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and single-serve still waters (flavored, unflavored and enhanced) with “new age” beverages, including sodas that are considered natural, sparkling juices and flavored sparkling beverages. According to Beverage Marketing Corporation, domestic U.S. wholesale sales in 2021 for the “alternative” beverage category of the market are estimated at approximately $67.0 billion, representing an increase of approximately 11.4% over estimated domestic U.S. wholesale sales in 2020 of approximately $60.1 billion.

Reportable Segments

We have three operating and reportable segments, (i) Monster Energy® Drinks segment (“Monster Energy® Drinks”), which is primarily comprised of our Monster Energy® drinks, Reign Total Body Fuel® high performance energy drinks and True North® Pure Energy Seltzers, (ii) Strategic Brands segment (“Strategic Brands”), which is comprised primarily of the various energy drink brands acquired from The Coca-Cola Company (“TCCC”) in 2015 as well as our affordable energy brands, and (iii) Other segment (“Other”), which is comprised of certain products sold by American Fruits and Flavors LLC (“AFF”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, to independent third-party customers (the “AFF Third-Party Products”).

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Our Monster Energy® Drinks segment primarily generates net operating revenues by selling ready-to-drink packaged energy drinks primarily to bottlers and full service beverage distributors. In some cases, we sell directly to retail grocery and specialty chains, wholesalers, club stores, mass merchandisers, convenience chains, drug stores, foodservice customers, value stores, e-commerce retailers and the military.

Our Strategic Brands segment primarily generates net operating revenues by selling “concentrates” and/or “beverage bases” to authorized bottling and canning operations. Such bottlers generally combine the concentrates and/or beverage bases with sweeteners, water and other ingredients to produce ready-to-drink packaged energy drinks. The ready-to-drink packaged energy drinks are then sold to other bottlers, full service distributors or retailers, including, retail grocery and specialty chains, wholesalers, club stores, mass merchandisers, convenience chains, foodservice customers, drug stores, value stores, e-commerce retailers and the military. To a lesser extent, our Strategic Brands segment generates net operating revenues by selling certain ready-to-drink packaged energy drinks to bottlers and full service beverage distributors.

Generally, the Monster Energy® Drinks segment generates higher per case net operating revenues, but lower per case gross profit margin percentages than the Strategic Brands segment.

For certain risks with respect to our energy drinks see “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors” below.

Corporate History

In the 1930s, Hubert Hansen and his sons started a business selling fresh non-pasteurized juices in Los Angeles, California. In 1977, Tim Hansen, one of the grandsons of Hubert Hansen, perceived a demand for shelf stable pasteurized natural juices and juice blends and formed Hansen Foods, Inc. (“HFI”). HFI expanded its product line from juices to include Hansen’s Natural Soda® brand sodas. In 1990, California Co-Packers Corporation (d/b/a Hansen Beverage Company) (“CCC”) acquired certain assets of HFI, including the right to market the Hansen’s® brand name. In 1992, Hansen Natural Corporation acquired the Hansen’s® brand natural soda and apple juice business from CCC. Under our ownership, the Hansen’s® beverage business significantly expanded to include a wide range of beverages within the growing “alternative” beverage category including, in particular, energy drinks. In 2012, we changed our name from Hansen Natural Corporation to Monster Beverage Corporation. In 2015, we acquired various energy brands from TCCC and disposed of our non-energy drink business. In 2016, we completed our acquisition of flavor supplier and long-time business partner AFF.

CANarchy Acquisition

On February 17, 2022, we completed our acquisition of CANarchy Craft Brewery Collective LLC (“CANarchy”), a craft beer and hard seltzer company, for $330.0 million in cash, subject to adjustments. The transaction allows us to enter the alcohol beverage sector and brings the Cigar City family of brands including Jai Alai IPA and Florida Man IPA, the Oskar Blues family of brands including Dale’s Pale Ale and Wild Basin Hard Seltzers, the Deep Ellum family of brands including Dallas Blonde and Deep Ellum IPA, the Perrin Brewing family of brands including Black Ale, the Squatters family of brands including Hop Rising Double IPA and Juicy IPA and the Wasatch family of brands including Apricot Hefeweizen to our beverage portfolio. The transaction does not include CANarchy’s stand-alone restaurants. Our organizational structure for our existing energy beverage business will remain unchanged. CANarchy will function independently, retaining its own organizational structure and team.

2021 Product Introductions

During 2021, we continued to expand our existing energy drink portfolio by adding additional products to our portfolio in a number of countries and further developed our distribution markets. During 2021, we sold the following new products to our customers:

BPM® Mango

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Fury® Mean Green

Monster® (stylized) Reserve Watermelon

Monster® (stylized) Reserve White Pineapple

Monster Energy® Super Cola® (Japan)

Monster Energy® Ultra Gold®

Monster Hydro® Energy Water Watermelon

Monster Hydro® Super SportTM Killer KiwiTM

Monster Hydro® Super SportTM Macho MangoTM

Rehab® Monster® Strawberry Lemonade

Mother® Zero Sugar Razzle Berry

Nalu® Hibiscus Rooibos

Play® Zero Raspberry

Predator® Malt Smash

Predator® Mango Mayhem

Predator® Spicy Ginger

Predator® Tropical

Reign Inferno® Thermogenic Fuel Watermelon Warlord

Reign Total Body Fuel® Cherry Limeade

Reign Total Body Fuel® White Gummy Bear

True North® Pure Energy Seltzer Black Cherry

True North® Pure Energy Seltzer Cucumber Lime

True North® Pure Energy Seltzer Grapefruit Lemonade

True North® Pure Energy Seltzer Mandarin Yuzu

True North® Pure Energy Seltzer Watermelon Mist

True North® Pure Energy Seltzer White Peach Pear

In the normal course of business, we discontinue certain products and/or product lines. Those products or product lines discontinued in 2021, either individually or in aggregate, did not have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

Products – Monster Energy® Drinks Segment

Monster Energy® Drinks – a line of carbonated energy drinks. Our Monster Energy® drinks contain vitamins, minerals, nutrients, herbs and other ingredients (collectively, “supplement ingredients”). We offer the following energy drinks under the Monster Energy® drink product line: Monster Energy®, Lo-Carb Monster Energy®, Monster Assault®, Monster Energy® Fury®, Juice Monster® Aussie Style LemonadeTM, Juice Monster® Khaos®, Juice Monster® Khaotic®, Juice Monster® Mango Loco®, Juice Monster® Pacific Punch®, Juice Monster® PapillonTM, Juice Monster® Pipeline Punch®, Juice Monster® Ripper®, Monster® Mango Loco, Monster Energy® Zero Sugar, Monster Energy® Import, Monster Energy® Export, M3(stylized)®, Monster Energy® Super Concentrate, Monster Mule®, Monster Cuba Libre®, Monster Energy Zero Ultra®, Monster Energy Ultra Black®, Monster Energy Ultra Blue®, Monster Energy Ultra Citron®, Monster Energy Ultra Fiesta® Mango, Monster Energy® Ultra Gold®, Monster Energy Ultra Paradise®, Monster Energy® Ultra Peachy Keen®, Monster Energy Ultra Red®, Monster Energy Ultra Rosa®, Monster Energy Ultra Sunrise®, Monster Energy Ultra Violet®, Monster Energy Ultra® Watermelon, Monster Energy® Mixxd Punch, Monster Energy® Valentino Rossi, Monster Energy® Lewis Hamilton 44, Monster Energy® Super Cola® (Japan), Monster® (stylized) Reserve Watermelon and Monster® (stylized) Reserve White Pineapple.

Espresso Monster® Espresso + Energy Drinks a line of non-carbonated dairy based espresso + energy drinks. We offer the following espresso + energy drinks under the Espresso Monster® product line: Espresso and Milk, Salted Caramel and Vanilla Espresso.

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Java Monster® Coffee + Energy Drinks a line of non-carbonated dairy based coffee + energy drinks. We offer the following coffee + energy drinks under the Java Monster® product line: Java Monster® 300 French Vanilla, Java Monster® 300 Mocha, Java Monster® Farmer’s Oats, Java Monster® Irish Blend®, Java Monster® Kona Blend, Java Monster® Loca Moca®, Java Monster® Mean Bean®, Java Monster® Salted Caramel and Java Monster® Vanilla Light.

Monster Energy® Dragon Iced TeaTM Energy Teas a line of non-carbonated energy teas. We offer the following energy teas under the Monster Energy® Dragon Iced TeaTM product line in different countries: Green Tea, Peach Tea, Raspberry Tea and Lemon Tea.

Monster Hydro® includes two product lines: Energy Water and Super Sport. Monster Hydro® Energy Water is a line of non-carbonated, lightly sweetened refreshment + energy drinks. We offer the following refreshment + energy drinks under the Monster Hydro® Energy Water product line: Blue Ice®, Watermelon®, Purple Passion®, Tropical Thunder® and Zero Sugar. Monster Hydro® Super Sport is a line of non-carbonated, lightly sweetened refreshment + energy drinks that features an enhanced electrolyte blend and BCAA’s. We offer the following refreshment + energy drinks under the Monster Hydro® Super Sport product line: Blue Streak, Killer Kiwi, Macho Mango and Red Dawg.

Monster HydroSport Super Fuel® Hydration + Energy Drinks a line of non-carbonated, advanced hydration + energy drinks with BCAA’s. We offer the following advanced hydration + energy drinks under the Monster HydroSport Super Fuel® product line: Blue Streak, Charge, Hang Time and Striker.

Monster Energy® Nitro a line of carbonated energy drinks containing nitrous oxide. We offer the following energy drink under the Monster Energy® Nitro product line: Super Dry.

Rehab® Monster® Energy Drinks a line of non-carbonated energy drinks with electrolytes. We offer the following energy drinks under the Rehab® Monster® product line: Orangeade, Peach Tea, Raspberry Tea, Strawberry Lemonade, Tea + Lemonade and Watermelon.

Muscle Monster® Energy Shakes – a line of non-carbonated energy shakes containing 27-grams of protein. We offer the following energy shakes under the Muscle Monster® Energy Shakes product line: Chocolate and Vanilla.

Reign Total Body Fuel® High Performance Energy Drinks – a line of high performance energy drinks with BCAA’s, B vitamins, electrolytes and CoQ10 with zero sugar. We offer the following high performance energy drinks under the Reign Total Body Fuel® product line: Carnival Candy, Cherry Limeade, Lemon Hdz, Lilikoi Lychee, Mang-O-Matic, Melon Mania, Orange Dreamsicle, Peach Fizz, Razzle Berry,Reignbow Sherbet, Sour Apple, Strawberry Sublime and White Gummy Bear.

Reign Inferno® Thermogenic Fuel High Performance Energy Drinks – a line of high performance energy drinks with a thermogenic performance blend in addition to BCAA’s, B vitamins, electrolytes, and CoQ10 with zero sugar. We offer the following high performance energy drinks under the Reign Inferno® Thermogenic Fuel product line: Jalapeno Strawberry, Red Dragon, True BLU and Watermelon Warlord.

True North® Pure Energy Seltzers – a line of natural, plant-based energy drinks with an immunity boost, containing zero sugar, sweeteners, artificial flavors or colors. We offer the following energy seltzers under the True North® product line: Black Cherry, Cucumber Lime, Grapefruit Lemonade, Mandarin Yuzu, Watermelon Mist and White Peach Pear.

Products – Strategic Brands Segment

BPM® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the BPM® product line: Focus Berry Red, Hydrate Citrus Green,Mango, Sour Twist and Zero Orange.

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BU® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the BU® product line: Island Punch and Original.

Burn® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Burn® product line: Apple Kiwi, Blue, Cherry, Dark Energy, Lemon Ice, Mango, Original, Passion Punch, Peach, Zero Raspberry, Sour Twist and Zero.

Full Throttle® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Full Throttle® product line: Original (Citrus) and True Blue.

Fury® – a line of affordable carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Fury® product line: Gold Strike and Mean Green.

Gladiator®  a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drink under the Gladiator® product line: Original.

Live+® a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Live+® product line: Ascend, Ignite and Persist.

Mother®  a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Mother® product line: Epic Swell, Frosty Berry, Kicked Apple®, Original, Passion, Sugar Free, Tropical BlastTM and Zero Sugar Razzle Berry.

Nalu® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Nalu® product line: Black Tea & Passion Fruit, Exotic, Frost, Green Tea & Ginger,Hibiscus Rooibos, Original, Passion and Refresh.

NOS® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the NOS® product line: GT Grape, Nitro Mango, Original, Sonic Sour and Turbo.

Play® and Power Play® (stylized) a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Play® and Power Play® (stylized) product line: Apple Kiwi, Mango, Passion Fruit, Original, Sugar Free and Zero Raspberry.

Predator® – a line of affordable carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Predator® product line: Gold Strike, Malt Smash, Mango Mayhem, Mean Green, Purple Rain, Red Dawn, Spicy Ginger and Tropical.

Relentless® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Relentless® product line: Apple Kiwi, Cherry, Lemon Ice, Mango, Origin, Passion Punch, Sour Twist and Zero.

Samurai® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Samurai® product line: Fruity and Strawberry.

Ultra Energy® – a line of carbonated energy drinks. We offer the following energy drinks under the Ultra Energy® product line: Apple Kiwi, Fury, Mango, Original, Passion Punch, Peach Mango and Zero Raspberry.

Products – Other Segment

AFF sells a limited number of products to independent third-party customers.

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Other Products

We continue to evaluate and, where considered appropriate, introduce additional products, flavors and types of beverages to complement our existing product lines. We may also evaluate, and where considered appropriate, introduce additional types of consumer products we consider to be complementary to our existing products and/or to which our brand names are able to add value.

The Company also sells and/or enters into license agreements that generate revenues associated with third-party sales of non-beverage products bearing the Company’s trademarks including, but not limited to, clothing, backpacks, hats, t-shirts, jackets, helmets and automotive wheels.

Products – Packaging

Our products are packaged in a variety of different package types and sizes including, but not limited to, aluminum cans, aluminum cap cans, sleek aluminum cans, aluminum cans with re-sealable ends as well as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles.

Manufacture and Distribution

AFF develops and manufactures the primary flavors for our Monster Energy® Drinks segment.

We do not operate our own manufacturing facilities for finished goods, but instead outsource the manufacturing process to third-party bottlers and contract packers.

We purchase flavor ingredients, flavors, concentrates, sweeteners, juices, supplement ingredients, cans, bottles, caps, labels, trays, boxes and other ingredients for our beverage products from ingredient suppliers, which are delivered to our various third-party bottlers and co-packers. In some cases, certain common supplies may be purchased by our various third-party bottlers and co-packers. Depending on the product, the third-party bottlers or co-packers add filtered water and/or other ingredients (including supplement ingredients) for the manufacture and packaging of the finished products into our approved containers in accordance with our recipes and formulas. Depending on the beverage, the bottler/packer may also add carbonation to the products as part of the production process.

For our Strategic Brands segment, we primarily purchase concentrates and/or beverage bases from ingredient suppliers, which are then sold to certain of our various third-party bottlers/distributors. The third-party bottlers/distributors are responsible for the manufacture and packaging of the finished products, including the procurement of all other required ingredients and packaging materials. For certain limited products in the Strategic Brands segment, we may purchase flavors, concentrates, sweeteners, juices, supplement ingredients, cans, bottles, caps, labels, trays, boxes and other ingredients for our Strategic Brand products from our suppliers, which are delivered to our various third-party bottlers and co-packers. In some cases, certain common supplies may be purchased by our various third-party bottlers and co-packers. Depending on the product, the third-party bottlers or co-packers add filtered water and/or other ingredients (including supplement ingredients), for the manufacture and packaging of the finished products into our approved containers in accordance with our recipes and formulas. Depending on the beverage, the bottler/co-packer may also add carbonation to the products as part of the production process.

Co-Packing Arrangements

All of our finished goods are manufactured by various third-party bottlers and co-packers situated throughout the United States and abroad, under separate arrangements with each party. Our co-packaging arrangements vary in terms and do not generally obligate us to procure minimum quantities of products within specified periods.

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In some instances, subject to agreement, certain equipment may be purchased exclusively by us and/or jointly with our co-packers, and installed at their facilities to enable them to produce certain of our products. In certain cases, such equipment remains our property and is required to be returned to us upon termination of the packing arrangements with such co-packers, unless we are reimbursed by the co-packer at the then book value or via a per-case credit over a pre-determined number of cases that are produced at the facilities concerned.

For our Monster Energy® Drinks segment, we are generally responsible for arranging for the purchase and delivery to our third-party bottlers and co-packers of the containers in which our beverage products are packaged.

Our products are packaged in a number of locations, both domestically and internationally. As distribution volumes increase in both our domestic and international markets, we will continue to source additional packing arrangements.

Our ability to estimate demand for our products is imprecise, particularly with new products, and may be less precise during periods of rapid growth, particularly in new markets. If we materially underestimate demand for our products and/or are unable to secure sufficient ingredients or raw materials including, but not limited to, aluminum cans, aluminum cap cans, sleek aluminum cans, aluminum cans with re-sealable ends, PET plastic bottles, caps, labels, flavor ingredients, flavors, juice concentrates, coffee, tea, supplement ingredients, other ingredients and certain sweeteners, and/or procure adequate packing arrangements and/or obtain adequate or timely shipment of our products, we might not be able to satisfy demand on a short-term basis. (See “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors”).

For most of our products there are limited co-packing facilities in our domestic and international markets with adequate capacity and/or suitable equipment to package our products. We believe a short disruption or delay in production would not significantly affect our revenues; however, as alternative co-packing facilities in our domestic and international markets with adequate long-term capacity may not be available for such products, either at commercially reasonable rates and/or within a reasonably short time period, if at all, a lengthy disruption or delay in production of any of such products could significantly affect our revenues.

We continue to actively seek alternative and/or additional co-packing facilities around the world (including in Africa, Asia, Australia, Central and South America, China, Europe, India, Mexico, the Middle East and the United States) with adequate capacity and capability for the production of our various products to minimize transportation costs and transportation-related damages as well as to mitigate the risk of a disruption in production and/or importation.

Distribution Agreements

During 2021, we continued to expand distribution of our products in both our domestic and international markets.

Distribution levels vary by product and geographic location. Net sales outside the United States were $2.04 billion, $1.51 billion and $1.33 billion for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

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Monster Energy® Distribution Agreements

We have entered into agreements with various bottlers/distributors providing for the distribution of our products during initial terms of up to twenty years, which may be renewed thereafter for additional terms ranging from one to five years, subject to certain terms and conditions which may vary depending on the form of the agreement. Such agreements remain in effect for their then-current term as long as our products are being distributed, but are subject to specified termination rights held by each party, which may include by way of example, and depending on the form of agreement, termination upon: mutual agreement; material breach of the agreement by, or an insolvency of, either party; deadlock; change of control; changes in legal or regulatory conditions and termination of certain related agreements. Additionally, we are entitled to terminate certain distribution agreements at any time without cause upon payment of a termination fee, including a limited number of distribution agreements with TCCC network bottlers that were entered into prior to 2015.

Certain of our material distribution arrangements for our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks, as amended from time to time, are described below:

(a)Amended and Restated Distribution Coordination Agreement with TCCC, pursuant to which we have designated, and in the future may designate, subject to TCCC’s approval, territories in Canada and the United States in which bottlers from TCCC’s network of wholly or partially-owned and independent bottlers (the “TCCC North American Bottlers”) will distribute and sell, or continue to distribute and sell, our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks.
(b)Amended and Restated International Distribution Coordination Agreement with TCCC, pursuant to which we have designated, and in the future may designate, countries, or territories within countries, in which we wish to appoint TCCC network bottlers to distribute and sell our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks, subject to TCCC’s approval. In February 2020, the Amended and Restated International Distribution Coordination Agreement with TCCC was renewed for an additional five-year term.
(c)Additionally, we have entered into distribution agreements for certain of our Monster Energy® products with various TCCC network bottlers, both in the United States and internationally.

All distribution territories in the United States, and substantially all distribution territories internationally have been transitioned to TCCC network bottlers/distributors.

Strategic Brands Distribution Agreements

We have entered into distribution coordination agreements with TCCC pursuant to which we have designated, and in the future may designate, subject to TCCC’s approval, territories in which TCCC network bottlers will distribute our Strategic Brands energy drinks.

We have entered into agreements with various TCCC network bottlers, both in the United States and internationally, providing for the distribution and sale of our Strategic Brands energy drinks.

Raw Materials and Suppliers

The principal raw materials used in the manufacturing of our products are aluminum cans, aluminum cap cans, sleek aluminum cans, aluminum cans with re-sealable ends, PET plastic bottles, caps, as well as flavors, juice concentrates, glucose, sugar, sucralose, milk, cream, protein, coffee, tea, supplement ingredients and other packaging materials, the costs of which are subject to fluctuations. As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have seen a shift in consumer channel preferences and package configurations, including an increase in at-home consumption and a decrease in food service on-premise consumption. This shift has resulted in increased industry demand for aluminum cans, leading to aluminum cans being in short supply.

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AFF is the primary flavor supplier for our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks. We also purchase flavors from other suppliers as well as juices, supplement ingredients, glucose, sugar, sucralose, other sweeteners and other ingredients from independent suppliers located in the United States and abroad.

For our Strategic Brands energy drinks, we purchase flavors, concentrates and/or beverage bases from flavor suppliers including TCCC in the United States and abroad, and may purchase certain other ingredients from independent suppliers located in the United States and abroad.

With regard to our Java Monster®, Espresso Monster® and Muscle Monster® product lines, the dairy, protein and retort co-packing industries are subject to shortages and increased demand from time to time, which may result in production disruption and/or higher prices.

For certain flavors purchased from third-party suppliers and used in a limited number of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks and/or our Strategic Brands energy drinks, these third-party flavor suppliers own the proprietary rights to certain of their flavor formulas. We do not have possession of the list of such flavor ingredients or formulas used in the production of certain of our products and certain of our blended concentrates, and we may be unable to obtain comparable flavors or concentrates from alternative suppliers on short notice. Our third-party flavor suppliers generally do not make such flavors and/or blended concentrates available to other third-party customers.

We have identified alternative suppliers for many of the ingredients contained in many of our beverages. However, industry-wide shortages of certain flavor ingredients,flavors, fruits and fruit juices, coffee, tea, dairy-based products, supplement ingredients and sweeteners have been, and could from time to time in the future be, encountered, which could interfere with and/or delay production of certain of our products.

We continually endeavor to develop back-up sources of supply for certain of our flavor ingredients, flavors and concentrates purchased from third-party suppliers, as well as to negotiate arrangements with our existing suppliers, which would enable us to obtain access to certain of such concentrates or flavor formulas under certain circumstances. We have been partially successful in these endeavors. Additionally, in a limited number of cases, contractual restrictions and/or the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals and licenses may limit our ability to enter into agreements with alternative suppliers, manufacturers and/or distributors.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, global inflation, unanticipated increases in demand, labor shortages and supply chain disruptions, we experienced shortages of certain raw materials, such as aluminum cans and ingredients, and increased import and operating costs in 2021 and will likely continue to experience such costs in fiscal year 2022. See “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Our Distribution and Supply Chain” for more information on such shortages and how we have, and will continue to, remediate such challenges in our supply chain.

Competition

The beverage industry is highly competitive. The principal areas of competition are pricing, packaging, development of new products and flavors as well as promotional and marketing strategies. Our products compete with a wide range of drinks produced by a relatively large number of companies, many of which have substantially greater financial, marketing and distribution resources than we do.

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Important factors affecting our ability to compete successfully include brand and product image, taste and flavor of products, trade and consumer promotions, rapid and effective development of new and unique cutting edge products, ingredients, attractive and different packaging, brand exposure and marketing as well as pricing. We also rely on our bottlers and full service beverage distributors to allocate more attention to our products than those of our competitors, provide stable and reliable distribution and secure adequate shelf space in retail outlets. Competitive pressures in the “alternative”, energy, coffee and “functional” beverage categories could cause our products to maintain or to lose market share or we could experience price erosion, which could materially impact our business and results of operations.

We have experienced and continue to experience competition from new entrants in the energy drink and energy shot categories. A number of companies who market and distribute iced teas, coffees, juice cocktails, enhanced waters and sports drinks in various larger volume packages in glass and plastic bottles (including BODYARMOR, Vitamin Water, CORE, Arizona, Ocean Spray, Powerade, Gatorade Bolt 24 and Starbucks) and 12- and 16-ounce cans (such as Mountain Dew Kickstart and Game Fuel), have added supplement ingredients to their products with a view to marketing their products as “functional” or energy beverages or as having “functional” benefits. We believe that many of those products contain lower levels of supplement ingredients, principally deliver refreshment and are positioned differently from our energy or “functional” drinks.

We are also subject to increasing levels of regulatory issues including in relation to the registration and/or taxation of our products in certain new international markets, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage. (See “Government Regulation” below for additional information).

We compete not only for consumer preference, but also for maximum marketing, sales efforts and attention from our multi-brand licensed bottlers, brokers and distributors, many of which have a principal affiliation with competing companies and brands. Our products compete with all liquid refreshments and in many cases with products of much larger and in some cases better financed competitors, including the products of numerous nationally and internationally known producers such as TCCC, PepsiCo, Inc. (“PepsiCo”), Keurig Dr. Pepper Inc. (“KDP”) and Red Bull GmbH. We also compete with companies that are smaller or primarily local in operation. Our products also compete with private-label brands such as those carried by grocery store chains, convenience store chains and club stores.

Domestically, our energy drinks compete directly with Red Bull, Rockstar, MTN Dew Amp, MTN Dew Kickstart, MTN Dew GameFuel and MTN Dew Energy, G Fuel, Venom, VPX Redline, 5-Hour Energy Shots, MiO Energy, VPX Bang, V8 + Energy, Uptime, hi*ball, CELSIUS, C4, Alani Nu, 3D Energy, ZOA Energy, Rowdy Energy, GHOST Energy, Starbucks BAYA energy and many other brands.

In 2020, PepsiCo acquired Rockstar and entered into an agreement with VPX to distribute VPX Bang products in the United States. PepsiCo also markets and/or distributes additional products in that market segment such as Pepsi Max, Mountain Dew, MTN Dew Energy, MTN Dew Kickstart and MTN Dew Game Fuel.

Internationally, our energy drinks compete with Red Bull (including non-carbonated Red Bull in China and Asia), Rockstar, V-Energy, Lucozade, and numerous local and private-label brands that usually differ from country to country, such as HELL, Amper, Shock, Tiger, Fearless, Boost, TNT, Shark, Dragon, Score, Sting, Hot 6, Suntory ZONE, Battery, Bullit, Flash Up, Black, Non-Stop, Bomba, Semtex, Vive 100, Dark Dog, Speed, Guarana, M-150, Lipovitan, Bacchus, Volt, Bolt, Mr. Big, Boom, Raptor, Amp, Fusion, Hi-Tiger, Eastroc Super Drink, Carabao, Power Horse, XL, Crazy Tiger, Effect, Missile, Nocco, Adrenaline Rush, Real Gold, War Horse, BLU, and a host of other international brands.

Our Reign Total Body Fuel® and Reign Inferno® Thermogenic Fuel high performance energy drinks compete with VPX Bang, Adrenaline Shoc, C4, CELSIUS, NOCCO, Rockstar XDURANCE in the performance energy category.

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Our Java Monster® and Espresso Monster® product lines compete directly with Starbucks Frappuccino, Starbucks Doubleshot, Starbucks Doubleshot Energy Plus Coffee, Starbucks Tripleshot and other Starbucks coffee drinks, Costa Coffee, Rockstar Roasted, Dunkin Donuts, Gold Peak, Stok, High Brew, McCafé, hi*ball, Douwe Egberts Coffee, Emmi CAFFÈ, Bang Keto Coffee, Nescafe, Black Rifle and International Delight.

Our Muscle Monster® product line competes directly with Muscle Milk, Core Power, Premier Protein, Kellogg’s Special K Protein, Bolthouse Farms Protein, EAS AdvantEDGE, EAS Myoplex and Gatorade G Series 03 Recover.

Our Monster Hydro® Energy Water, Monster HydroSport Super Fuel® and Monster Hydro® Super Sport product lines compete directly with Vitamin Water, Sparkling Ice, Bai, Propel, Vita Coco, Lucozade, Powerade, Gatorade Bolt 24 and BODYARMOR.

Our True North® Pure Energy Seltzer product line competes directly with Celsius and Alani Nu.

Sales and Marketing

Our sales and marketing strategy for all our beverages is to focus our efforts on developing brand awareness through image-enhancing programs and product sampling. We use our branded vehicles and other promotional vehicles at events where we offer samples of our products to consumers. We utilize “push-pull” methods to enhance shelf and display space exposure in sales outlets (including racks, coolers and barrel coolers), advertising, in-store promotions and in-store placement of point-of-sale materials to encourage demand from consumers for our products. We also support our brands with prize promotions, price promotions, competitions, endorsements from selected public and sports figures, sports personality endorsements, sampling and sponsorship of selected athletes, teams, series, bands, esports, causes and events. In-store posters, outdoor posters, social media, concerts, print, radio and television advertising (directly and through our sponsorships and endorsements) and coupons may also be used to promote our brands.

We believe that one of the keys to success in the beverage industry is differentiation, making our brands and products visually appealing and distinctive from other beverages on the shelves of retailers. We review our products and packaging on an ongoing basis and, where practical, endeavor to make them different and unique. The labels and graphics for many of our products are redesigned and refreshed from time to time to maximize their visibility and identification, wherever they may be placed in stores, which we continue to reevaluate from time to time.

Where appropriate, we partner with our bottlers/distributors and/or retailers to assist our marketing efforts.

We increased expenditures for our sales and marketing programs by approximately 21.0% in the twelve-months ended December 31, 2021 compared to the twelve-months ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily due to increased expenditures for sponsorship and endorsements as well as social and digital marketing. During the comparative twelve-months ended December 31, 2020, we decreased expenditures for sponsorship and endorsements and decreased expenditures for travel and entertainment, each largely as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was less pronounced on our sales and marketing programs in the twelve-months ended December 31, 2021. We increased expenditures for our sales and marketing programs by approximately 9.2% in the twelve-months ended December 31, 2021 compared to the twelve-months ended December 31, 2019 (pre COVID-19).

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Customers

Our customers are primarily full service beverage bottlers/distributors, retail grocery, drug and specialty chains, wholesalers, club stores, mass merchandisers, convenience chains, foodservice customers, value stores, e-commerce retailers and the military. Percentages of our gross billings to our various customer types for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are reflected below. Such information includes sales made by us directly to the customer types concerned, which include our full service beverage bottlers/distributors in the United States. Such full service beverage bottlers/distributors in turn sell certain of our products to some of the same customer types listed below. We limit our description of our customer types to include only our sales to our full service bottlers/distributors without reference to such bottlers/distributors’ sales to their own customers.

    

2021

2020

2019

U.S. full service bottlers/distributors

 

51%

56%

58%

International full service bottlers/distributors

 

39%

34%

33%

Club stores and e-commerce retailers

 

8%

8%

7%

Retail grocery, direct convenience, specialty chains and wholesalers

 

1%

1%

1%

Direct value stores and other

 

1%

1%

1%

Our customers include Coca-Cola Canada Bottling Limited, Coca-Cola Consolidated, Inc., Coca-Cola Bottling Company United, Inc., Reyes Coca-Cola Bottling, LLC, Great Lakes Coca-Cola Distribution, LLC, Coca-Cola Southwest Beverages LLC, The Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Northern New England, Inc., Swire Pacific Holdings, Inc. (USA), Liberty Coca-Cola Beverages, LLC, Coca-Cola Europacific Partners (formerly Coca-Cola European Partners and Coca-Cola Amatil), Coca-Cola Hellenic, Coca-Cola FEMSA, Swire Coca-Cola (China), COFCO Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Beverages Africa, Coca-Cola İçecek and certain other TCCC network bottlers, Asahi Soft Drinks, Co., Ltd., Wal-Mart, Inc. (including Sam’s Club), Costco Wholesale Corporation and Amazon.com, Inc. A decision by any large customer to decrease amounts purchased from us or to cease carrying our products could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and consolidated results of operations.

Coca-Cola Consolidated, Inc. accounted for approximately 12%, 12% and 13% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Reyes Coca-Cola Bottling, LLC accounted for approximately 10%, 11% and 11% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Coca-Cola Europacific Partners accounted for approximately 12%, 10% and 10% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.

Seasonality

Sales of ready-to-drink beverages are somewhat seasonal, with the second and third calendar quarters accounting for the highest sales volumes. We believe that the volume of sales in the beverage industry is affected by weather conditions. However, the energy drink category appears to be less seasonal than traditional beverages. Quarterly fluctuations may also be affected by other factors including the introduction of new products, the opening of new markets, particularly internationally, where temperature fluctuations may be more pronounced, the addition of new bottlers and distributors, changes in the mix of the sales of our finished products and increased or decreased advertising and promotional expenses.

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Intellectual Property

We presently have more than 16,400 registered trademarks and pending applications in various countries worldwide, and we apply for new trademarks on an ongoing basis. We regard our trademarks, service marks, copyrights, domain names, trade dress and other intellectual property as very important to our business. We consider Monster®, Monster Energy®, ®, Monster Energy Ultra®, Monster Dragon Tea®, Unleash the Beast!®, Mutant®, Monster Rehab®, Java Monster®, Muscle Monster®, Punch Monster®, Juice Monster®, Hydro® (stylized), Monster HydroSport Super Fuel®, Monster Super Fuel®, Espresso Monster®, Monster Energy® Nitro, Reign Total Body Fuel®, Reign Inferno®, True North®, BU®, Nalu®, NOS®, Full Throttle®, Burn®, Mother®, Ultra Energy®, Play® and Power Play® (stylized), Relentless®, Predator®, Fury®, Live+® and BPM® to be our core trademarks. We also own the intellectual property of our most important flavors for certain of our Monster Energy® Brand energy drinks in perpetuity.

We have registered Monster®, Monster Energy®, ®, Monster Energy Ultra®, Unleash the Beast!®, Mutant®, Monster Rehab®, Java Monster®, Muscle Monster®, Punch Monster®, Juice Monster®, Hydro® (stylized), Espresso Monster®, True North®, BU®, Nalu®, Burn®, Mother®, Play®, Power Play® (stylized), Relentless®, Ultra Energy®, BPM®, Predator®, Fury®, Live+®, Reign®, Reign Total Body Fuel® and Reign Inferno® outside of the United States in certain jurisdictions.

We protect our trademarks by applying for registrations and registering our trademarks with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and with government agencies in other countries around the world, particularly where our products are distributed and sold. We assert copyright ownership of the statements, graphics and content appearing on the packaging of our products and in our marketing materials. We aggressively pursue individuals and/or entities seeking to profit from the unauthorized use of our trademarks and copyrights, including, without limitation, wholesalers, street vendors, retailers, online auction site sellers and website operators. In addition to initiating civil actions against these individuals and entities, we work with law enforcement officials where appropriate.

Depending upon the jurisdiction, trademarks are valid as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained and they have not been found to have become generic. Registrations of trademarks can generally be renewed as long as the trademarks are in use.

We also enforce and protect our trademark rights against third parties infringing or disparaging our trademarks by opposing registration of conflicting trademarks and initiating litigation as necessary.

Government Regulation

The production, distribution and sale in the United States of many of our products are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local regulations, including but not limited to: the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“FD&C Act”); the Occupational Safety and Health Act and various state laws and regulations governing workplace health and safety; various environmental statutes; the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (“California Proposition 65”); various state and federal laws and regulations pertaining to the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages; data privacy and personal data protection laws and regulations, including the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (as modified by the California Privacy Rights Act) and a number of other federal, state and local statutes and regulations applicable to the production, transportation, sale, safety, advertising, marketing, labeling and ingredients of such products. Outside the United States, the production, distribution and sale of many of our products are also subject to numerous statutes and regulations.

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We also may in the future be affected by other existing, proposed and potential future regulations or regulatory actions, including those described below, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors – Changes in government regulation, or failure to comply with existing regulations, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations” and “Significant changes to or failure to comply with various environmental laws may expose us to liability and/or cause certain of our facilities to close, relocate or operate at reduced production levels, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations” below for additional information.

Furthermore, legislation may be introduced in the United States and other countries at the federal, state, municipal and supranational level in respect of each of the subject areas discussed below. Public health officials and health advocates are increasingly focused on the public health consequences associated with obesity, especially as it affects children, and are seeking legislative change to reduce the consumption of sweetened beverages. There also has been an increased focus on caffeine content in beverages and we are seeing some attention to other ingredients in energy drinks.

Product Formulation, Labeling and Advertising. Globally, we are subject to a number of regulations applicable to the formulation, labeling and advertising (including promotional campaigns) of our products. In California, we are subject to California Proposition 65, a law which requires that a specified warning be provided before exposing California consumers to any product that contains in excess of threshold amounts of a substance listed by California as having been found to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. California Proposition 65 does not require a warning if the manufacturer of a product can demonstrate that the use of the product in question exposes consumers to an average daily quantity of a listed substance that is below that threshold amount, which is determined either by scientific criteria set forth in applicable regulations or via a “safe harbor” threshold that may be established by the state, or the substance is naturally occurring, or is subject to another applicable exception. If we are required to add warning labels to any of our products or place warnings in certain locations where our products are sold, it will be difficult to predict whether, or to what extent, such a warning would have an adverse impact on sales of our products in those locations or elsewhere.

In addition, in May 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) revised regulations with respect to serving size information and nutrition labeling on food and beverage products, including a new requirement to disclose the amount of added sugars in such products. These changes went into effect on January 1, 2020. Further, in December 2018, the U.S. Department of Agriculture promulgated regulations requiring that, by January 1, 2022, the labels of certain bioengineered foods include a disclosure that the food is bioengineered. Additionally, these new regulations may impact, reduce and/or otherwise affect the purchase and consumption of our products by consumers.

Other countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Mexico, and the People’s Republic of China, are also considering, or have enacted, new labeling requirements, which may require us to amend our labels and warning statements. The United Kingdom Government has also suggested that it may review food labeling laws following the United Kingdom’s departure from the European Union (“Brexit”).

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Age and Other Restrictions on Energy Drink Products. Proposals to limit or restrict the sale and/or advertising of energy drinks to minors and/or persons below a specified age, and/or restrict the venues in which energy drinks can be sold, and/or to restrict the use of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly food stamps) to purchase energy drinks have been raised and/or enacted in certain U.S. states, counties, municipalities and/or in certain foreign countries. For example, in the United States, bills seeking to impose an age restriction on the sale of energy drinks have been introduced in the Connecticut, Massachusetts, and South Carolina legislatures. Outside of the United States, for example, Latvia, Lithuania and Turkey prohibit the sale of energy drinks to persons under the age of 18; Canada prohibits the promotion of energy drinks to children 12 years and under; Latvia and Scotland prohibit the sale of energy drinks in educational establishments; and Turkey prohibits the sale or advertising of energy drinks in “collective consumption areas,” such as sports complexes, schools or hospitals. In Mexico, the States of Tabasco and Oaxaca prohibit the sale of energy drinks to minors and the consumption in schools; Colima prohibits the sale of energy drinks in private and public schools. Other Latin American countries such as Chile, Colombia and Brazil have been considering age and other sales restrictions on energy drinks, as are other countries such as the United Kingdom, Spain, Romania and Bulgaria.

Excise Taxes on Energy Drinks. Legislation that would impose an excise tax on sweetened beverages has been proposed in the U.S. Congress, in some state legislatures and by some local governments, with excise taxes generally ranging between $0.01 and $0.02 per ounce of sweetened beverage. Berkeley, California became the first jurisdiction to pass such a measure, and a general tax of $0.01 per ounce on certain sweetened drinks, including energy drinks, became effective on January 1, 2015. Other U.S. jurisdictions (including Albany, Oakland and San Francisco, California; Boulder, Colorado; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Seattle, Washington) have passed similar measures, some of which have been challenged in litigation. The imposition of such taxes on our products would increase the cost of certain of our products or, to the extent levied directly on consumers, make certain of our products less affordable. Excise taxes on sweetened beverages already are in effect in certain foreign countries where we do business, such as France, the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa and Mexico. Poland recently established a tax on drinks with added sugars, specifically targeting beverages containing caffeine and taurine. Other countries, including the Dominican Republic, are considering similar measures. In addition, legislation has been proposed in certain jurisdictions that would specifically impose excise taxes on energy drinks. For example, Kuwait is considering a proposal that would impose an excise tax on energy drinks. Such targeted legislation has been passed in other countries. For instance, on January 1, 2020, a reform to a Mexican excise tax went into effect that expanded the definition of an “energy drink” subject to this tax to include products with any amount of caffeine (the prior version of the tax required a threshold of 20 milligrams of caffeine per 100 millimeters for the tax to be applicable) and “taurine or glucuronolactone or thiamine and/or any other substance that produces similar stimulating effects.” Hungary has instituted an excise tax to which our products are subject. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates began applying a selective tax of 100% on energy drinks in 2017, Qatar and Oman began applying the tax in 2019, and there are indications that a similar measure may be enacted in Kuwait.

Limits on Caffeine Content. Legislation has been proposed to limit the amount of caffeine that may be contained in beverages, including energy drinks. Some jurisdictions where we do business have prescribed limited caffeine content for beverages. For example, in Canada, the maximum amount of caffeine cannot exceed 180 mg per single-serving container or per serving (500 ml) in the case of a multi-serving container. We adjusted the caffeine levels in certain of our Monster Energy® products that are sold in Canada to address these regulations, although the majority of our products were unaffected. In Europe, examples of caffeine restrictions include the Netherlands where there is a limit of 35mg/100ml, and Norway introduced, as of January 1, 2020 (subject to transition periods), a limit of 32mg/100ml. Caffeine limit restrictions or restrictions on combining caffeine with other ingredients or in particular product sectors (such as performance beverages/sport drinks) have also been implemented or proposed in other jurisdictions, including Turkey, India, Pakistan’s Punjab region, Egypt, Spain and the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Such restrictions could require reformulations of certain of our products. However, we may not be able to satisfactorily reformulate our products in all jurisdictions that adopt similar legislation.

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Limitations on Container Size. We package our products in a variety of different package types and sizes including, for certain of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks, aluminum cans larger than 16 fluid ounces. Certain jurisdictions, such as Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, the Dominican Republic, and Spain, are considering container size limitations on energy drinks and other beverages which may require us to change the size of our products sold in these countries. Other countries, like England, have considered and rejected proposed can size limitations although it is open to such markets to revisit these and other similar proposals.

Compliance with Environmental Laws

Our facilities and those of our co-packers in the United States are subject to federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to air emissions, the use of water resources and recycling. Our operations in other countries are subject to similar federal, state, local and supranational laws and regulations that may be applicable in such countries. Changes in environmental compliance mandates, and any expenditures necessary to comply with such requirements, could adversely affect our financial performance and future growth. Compliance with these provisions has not had, nor do we expect such compliance to have, any material adverse effect upon our capital expenditures, net income or competitive position.

Container Deposits. Various municipalities, states and foreign countries require that a deposit be charged for certain non-refillable beverage containers. The precise requirements imposed by these measures vary by jurisdiction. Other deposit, recycling or product stewardship proposals have been, and may in the future be, introduced in certain U.S. states, counties, municipalities and in certain foreign countries.

In California, we are required to collect redemption values from our customers and to remit such redemption values to the State of California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery based upon the number of cans and bottles of certain carbonated and non-carbonated products sold. In certain other states and countries where our products are sold, we are also required to collect deposits from our customers and to remit such deposits to the respective jurisdictions based upon the number of cans and bottles of certain carbonated and non-carbonated products sold in such states.

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2021, we have employees in 69 countries, with a total of 4,092 employees working worldwide. This employee population includes 2,714 employees in North America, 292 employees in Latin America, 254 employees in Asia Pacific and 832 employees in Europe, Mideast and Africa (“EMEA”). Most of our employees are full-time (3,458 employees) and the remaining 634 employees hold part-time positions. Of our 4,092 employees, we employ 1,256 in corporate and operational capacities (including administration, human resources, legal, information technology, operations, facilities, warehouse, product development, regulatory and accounting) and 2,836 persons in sales and marketing capacities.

As of December 31, 2021, approximately 48% of our U.S. employees are from one or more underrepresented groups, including, but not limited to, Black, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American and other Indigenous tribes and approximately 39% of our U.S. employees are female.

In 2020, we established our Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) Leadership Advisory Group, comprised of leaders from across the Company, designed to provide insight on our diversity and inclusion efforts and to assist in the integration of the EDI program with our overall strategy and business objectives. We provide training for our employees covering harassment, discrimination and unconscious bias.

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We support our employees through a variety of training and development programs. We have a mid-level manager development program, in which participants learn leadership skills, network with peers and senior executives, and tackle critical initiatives. We also have a leadership development platform in partnership with a third party, for senior leaders to receive university grade certificates in business strategy and innovation and complete Food and Beverage Executive courses as well as an electronic learning platform that focuses on business acumen, professional development and technical capabilities.

We provide compensation packages designed to attract and retain talent while maintaining alignment with market compensation surveys. We have multiple short-term incentive programs focused on incentivizing and retaining talent throughout the organization and provide long-term incentive programs to employees through equity and/or performance cash awards. We currently cover the cost of insurance premiums including medical, dental, vision, life, accidental death and dismemberment, short and long term disability, and an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) covering full-time employees and share in the cost of insurance premiums covering eligible dependents including medical, dental and vision coverage. We also offer several voluntary benefits to full-time employees, including supplemental life insurance, whole life insurance, accident insurance, critical illness insurance, flexible spending accounts, travel insurance, pre-paid legal, healthy rewards programs, identity theft assistance, and retirement savings account(s).

COVID-19 Employee Health Measures and Support. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented measures to ensure the health, safety, and well-being of our employees and have adapted such measures based on our close monitoring of the rapidly evolving situation. We have implemented work-from-home policies for employees who are able to work remotely. Where possible, we provide employees with equipment to facilitate home-based work. For those employees unable to work remotely, we implemented safety precautions, such as on-site COVID-19 testing, which were developed and adopted in line with guidance from public health authorities and professional consultants. We have also provided our employees with the following: year-end bonuses for essential, hourly employees; increased employee communications, including on topics such as mental health and family welfare; weekly and bi-weekly communication from executive leadership; wellness hotlines and enhanced employee assistance programs; employee surveys to evaluate employee morale; and resilience training programs to provide employees with the tools and resources to be resilient in the current climate, to stay healthy, and to engage in self-care.

Available Information

As a public company, we are required to file our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements on Schedule 14A and other information (including any amendments) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). You can find the Company’s SEC filings at the SEC’s website, which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, at http://www.sec.gov.

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Our Internet address is www.monsterbevcorp.com. Information contained on our website is not part of or incorporated into this filing or any of our other filings with the SEC. Our SEC filings (including any amendments) will be made available free of charge at www.monsterbevcorp.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, you may request a copy of these filings (excluding exhibits) at no cost by writing to, or telephoning us, at the following address or telephone number:

Monster Beverage Corporation

1 Monster Way

Corona, CA 92879

(951) 739-6200

(800) 426-7367

ITEM 1A.        RISK FACTORS

In addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the consolidated financial statements and related notes, you should carefully consider the following risks. If any of the following risks actually occur or continue to occur, our business, reputation, financial condition and/or operating results could be materially adversely affected. The risk factors summarized below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and/or operating results.

Risk Factors Summary

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could materially adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and/or operating results. You should read this summary together with the more detailed description of each risk contained below.

Operational and Industry Risks

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and we expect will continue to impact our business and operations.
The Company and TCCC have extensive commercial arrangements and, as a result, the Company’s future performance is substantially dependent on the success of its relationship with TCCC.
Provisions in our organizational documents and control by insiders or TCCC may prevent changes in control even if such changes would be beneficial to other stockholders.
We rely on bottlers and other contract packers to manufacture our products. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our bottlers and contract packers and/or their ability to manufacture our products becomes constrained or unavailable to us, our business could suffer.
We rely on bottlers and distributors to distribute our products. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our existing bottlers and distributors and/or secure such bottlers and distributors, our business could suffer.
We derive virtually all of our revenues from energy drinks, and competitive pressure in the energy drink category could adversely affect our business and operating results.
Criticism of our energy drink products and/or criticism or a negative perception of energy drinks generally, could adversely affect us.
Increased competition in the beverage industry and changing retail landscape could hurt our business.
Our inability to implement our growth strategy, including expanding our business in existing and new sectors, such as the alcohol beverage sector, or successfully integrate acquired businesses or assets could adversely affect our business and financial results.

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Changes in consumer product and shopping preferences may reduce demand for our products.
Our continued expansion outside of the United States exposes us to uncertain conditions and other risks in international markets.
If we are not able to pass on increases in the costs of raw materials, including aluminum cans and/or ingredients and/or fuel and/or costs of co-packing, such inability could harm our business and result in a higher cost base. Shortages of raw materials including aluminum cans and/or ingredients and/or fuel and/or costs of co-packing could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our failure to accurately estimate demand for our products or maintain sufficient inventory levels could adversely affect our business and financial results.
The costs of packaging supplies, ocean and domestic freight, and inflation generally may adversely affect our results of operations.
Global or regional catastrophic events could impact our operations and affect our ability to grow our business.
Climate change and natural disasters may negatively affect our business.
If we are not able to retain the services of our workforce, there may be an adverse effect on our operations and/or our operating performance until we find suitable replacements.
Negative publicity (whether or not warranted) could damage our brand image and corporate reputation, and may cause our business to suffer.

Government Regulation and Litigation Risks

Changes in government regulation, or failure to comply with existing regulations, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Significant changes to or failure to comply with various environmental laws may expose us to liability and/or cause certain of our facilities to close, relocate or operate at reduced production levels, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We cannot predict the effect of possible inquiries from and/or actions by attorneys general, other government agencies and/or quasi-government agencies into the production, advertising, marketing, promotion, labeling, ingredients, usage and/or sale of our energy drink products.
Litigation regarding our products, and related unfavorable media attention, could expose us to significant liabilities and reduce demand for our products, thus negatively affecting our financial results.
If we encounter material product recalls, our business may suffer material losses and such recalls could damage our brand image and corporate reputation, also resulting in material losses.

Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Data Privacy Risks

Our intellectual property rights are critical to our success, and the loss of such rights could materially adversely affect our business.
We must continually maintain, monitor, protect and/or upgrade our information technology systems, including protecting us from internal and external cybersecurity threats.
If we fail to comply with data privacy and personal data protection laws, we could be subject to adverse publicity, government enforcement actions and/or private litigation, which may negatively impact our business and operating results.

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Financial Risks

Fluctuations in our effective tax rate could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may be required in the future to record a significant charge to earnings if our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may adversely affect our operating results.
Potential changes in accounting standards or practices and/or taxation may adversely affect our financial results.
If we fail to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting on a consolidated basis, our stock price and investor confidence in the Company could be materially and adversely affected.
Uncertainty in the financial markets and other adverse changes in general economic or political conditions in any of the major countries in which we do business could adversely affect our industry, business and results of operations.
Default by or failure of one or more of our counterparty financial institutions could cause us to incur significant losses.
Volatility of stock price may restrict sale opportunities.
Our investments are subject to risks which may cause losses and affect the liquidity of these investments.

Operational and Industry Risks

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and we expect will continue to impact our business and operations.

The current COVID-19 pandemic has presented and continues to present a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world and is affecting our employees, communities and business operations, as well as the global economy and financial markets. The human and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the measures taken or that may be taken in the future by governments, businesses (including the Company and our suppliers, bottlers/distributors, co-packers and other service providers) and the public at large to limit the COVID-19 pandemic, have and will directly and indirectly impact our business and results of operations, including, without limitation, the following:

The COVID-19 pandemic has directly and indirectly impacted our business. The duration and severity of this impact will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the emergence of new variants, the action taken to limit its spread and the economic impact on local, regional, national and international markets. As countries continue to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, and as governments and/or local authorities impose regulations regarding COVID-19 testing, vaccine mandates and related workplace restrictions, there remains a risk that the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business and supply chain, including our ability to recruit and/or retain our employees as well as impact our co-packers, bottlers/distributors and/or suppliers.
Deteriorating economic conditions and continued financial uncertainties in many of our major markets due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as inflation, increased and prolonged unemployment, decreases in per capita income and the level of disposable income, declines in consumer confidence, or economic slowdowns or recessions, could affect consumer purchasing power and consumers’ ability to purchase our products, thereby reducing demand for our products. In addition, public concern among consumers regarding the risk of contracting COVID-19 may also reduce demand for our products.

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The closures of, and continued restrictions on, on-premise retailers and other establishments that sell our products as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact our sales and results of operations.
Our product sampling programs, which are part of our strategy to develop brand awareness, have been, and will continue to be, disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. If we are unable to successfully adapt to the changing landscape of advertising, marketing, promotional, sponsorship and endorsement opportunities created by the COVID-19 pandemic, our sales, market share, volume growth and overall financial results could be negatively affected.
Our innovation activities, including our ability to introduce new products in certain markets, have been delayed and/or adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. If such innovation activities are disrupted and we continue to delay the launch of new products and/or we are unable to secure sufficient distribution levels for such new products, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Some of our suppliers, bottlers/distributors and co-packers have experienced, and likely will continue to experience, plant closures, production slowdowns and disruptions in operations as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This could result in material disruptions to our operations.
We have experienced and may continue to experience delays in receiving certain raw materials as a result of shipping delays due to, among other things, additional safety requirements imposed by port authorities, closures of, or congestion at ports, reduced availability of commercial transportation, freight inefficiencies, shortages of shipping containers, border restrictions and capacity constraints.
Due to increased demand in at home beverage consumption, aluminum cans remain in tight supply, which could adversely impact or limit our sales and/or results of operations. We may also need to commit to minimum purchase volumes in order to secure sufficient quantities of certain raw materials including aluminum cans, as well as minimum co-packing volumes, which may lead to claims, costs, or losses if we over-estimate future demand for our products and do not use such volumes in full.  
We rely on relationships with third parties for cloud data storage and other information technology services for certain functions or for services in support of our operations. These third parties are subject to risks and uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may interfere with their ability to fulfill their respective commitments and responsibilities to us in a timely manner and in accordance with the agreed-upon terms.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including related governmental measures, restrictions, directives and guidance, most of our office-based employees continue to work remotely. We may experience reductions in productivity and disruptions to our business routines while our remote work policy remains in place. If our employees working remotely do not maintain appropriate measures to mitigate potential risks to our technology and operations from information technology-related disruptions, we may face cybersecurity threats. Employees of our third-party service providers who are working remotely, with whom we may share data, are subject to similar cybersecurity risks.
Governmental authorities at the U.S. federal, state and/or municipal level and in certain foreign jurisdictions may increase or impose new income taxes, indirect taxes or other taxes or revise interpretations of existing tax rules and regulations as a means of financing the costs of stimulus or may take other measures to protect populations and economies from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increases in direct and indirect

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tax rates could affect our net income, and increases in consumer taxes could affect our products’ affordability and reduce our sales.
We may be required to record significant impairment charges with respect to goodwill or intangible assets, whose fair values may be negatively affected by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The continued financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may cause one or more of the financial institutions we do business with to fail or default in their obligations to us or to become insolvent or file for bankruptcy, which could cause us to incur significant losses and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Actions we have taken or may take, or decisions we have made or may make, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic may result in negative publicity and the Company becoming a party to litigation claims and/or legal proceedings, which could consume significant financial and managerial resources, result in decreased demand for our products and injury to our reputation.
The resumption of normal business operations after the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may be delayed or constrained by the COVID-19 pandemic’s lingering effects on our suppliers, bottlers/distributors, co-packers, contractors, business partners and/or other service providers.

Any of the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including those described above, alone or in combination with others, may have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, operating results and/or financial condition. Any of these negative impacts, alone or in combination with others, could exacerbate many of the risk factors discussed herein, any of which could materially affect our business, reputation, operating results and/or financial condition.

The Company and TCCC have extensive commercial arrangements and, as a result, the Company’s future performance is substantially dependent on the success of its relationship with TCCC.

We have transitioned all third parties’ rights to distribute the Company’s products in the U.S. to members of TCCC’s distribution network, which largely consists of independent bottlers/distributors. In addition, except for a handful of countries, TCCC is our preferred distribution partner globally, with members of TCCC’s network distributing our products internationally, including in Africa, Asia, Canada, Central and South America, Europe, Mexico and the Middle East. As we progress our international expansion, we expect TCCC’s distribution network to continue as our preferred distribution partner globally. As a result, we have reduced our distributor diversification and are now dependent on TCCC’s domestic and international distribution platforms.

TCCC has a substantial equity investment in the Company. The Company, TCCC and certain affiliates are parties to various agreements in which TCCC and certain affiliates have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to compete in the energy drink category in certain territories prior to the termination of the applicable distribution coordination agreement with TCCC. The Company’s distribution agreements with TCCC distributors also provide, subject to certain exceptions, that the applicable distributor will not distribute competitive energy drink products.

While we believe that these agreements incentivize TCCC to take steps to ensure that our products receive the appropriate attention in the TCCC distribution system, disagreements as to the interpretation of the provisions in such agreements have arisen and may arise in the future. In addition, TCCC does not control all members of its distribution system, many of which are independent companies that make their own business decisions that may not always align with TCCC’s interests.

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Provisions in our organizational documents and control by insiders or TCCC may prevent changes in control even if such changes would be beneficial to other stockholders.

Our organizational documents may limit changes in control. Furthermore, as of February 16, 2022, Mr. Sacks and Mr. Schlosberg together may be deemed to beneficially own and/or exercise voting control over approximately 10% of our outstanding common stock. As of February 16, 2022, TCCC owned approximately 19% of our common stock. TCCC has also nominated one director to the Company’s board of directors. Consequently, Mr. Sacks, Mr. Schlosberg and TCCC could exercise significant control over matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including electing directors, amending organizational documents and disapproving extraordinary transactions such as a takeover attempt, even though such actions may be favorable to the other common stockholders.

In particular, TCCC’s ownership could have an effect on the Company’s ability to engage in a change in control transaction. TCCC is obligated for a period of time to vote all of its common shares of the Company in excess of 20% of the outstanding common shares in the same proportion as all common shares not owned by TCCC with respect to a proposal for a change of control. However, if TCCC were to oppose such a change-in-control transaction, a bidder would be required to secure the support of holders of 62.5% of the Company’s common shares not owned by TCCC (assuming that TCCC increased its ownership to 20% of the Company’s common shares) to achieve a vote of a majority of the Company’s outstanding shares for a change-in-control transaction. In addition, TCCC would have a bidding advantage if the Company’s board of directors were to seek to sell the Company in the future because TCCC would not need to pay a control premium on the shares it owns at such time. TCCC and the Company would also be permitted to terminate TCCC’s distribution coordination agreements with the Company after a change in control of the Company. In such event, TCCC would receive a termination fee if TCCC terminated the distribution coordination agreements following a change in control of the Company involving certain TCCC competitors, or if the Company terminated following a change in control of the Company involving any third-party.

The interests of TCCC may be different from or conflict with the interests of the Company’s other stockholders and, as a result, TCCC’s influence may result in the delay or prevention of potential actions or transactions. Moreover, TCCC’s ownership of a significant amount of the Company’s outstanding common shares could result in downward pressure on the trading price of the Company’s common shares if TCCC were to sell a large portion of its shares or as a result of the perception that such a sale might occur.

We rely on bottlers and other contract packers to manufacture our products. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our bottlers and contract packers and/or their ability to manufacture our products becomes constrained or unavailable to us, our business could suffer.

Our acquisition of AFF in 2016 brought our primary flavor supplier in-house for the majority of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks. However, we also procure flavors from other independent flavor suppliers. We do not operate our own manufacturing facilities for finished goods, but instead outsource manufacturing of our finished goods to bottlers and other contract packers. As a result, in the event of a disruption and/or delay, and/or demand exceeding forecasted demand, we may be unable to procure alternative packing facilities at commercially reasonable rates and/or within a reasonably short time period. In addition, there are limited alternative packing facilities in our domestic and international markets with adequate capacity and/or suitable equipment for many of our products. For example, in 2021, sales of many of our product lines were adversely impacted by production capacity constraints as a result of above forecast demand. A lengthy disruption or delay in the production of any of our products could significantly adversely affect our revenues from such products, because alternative co-packing facilities in the United States and abroad with adequate long-term capacity may not be available for such products either at commercially reasonable rates and/or costs and/or within a reasonably short time period, if at all. In addition, recently there has been a consolidation of co-packers. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our largest co-packers, or if our costs of co-packing increase, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

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We rely on bottlers and distributors to distribute our products. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our existing bottlers and distributors and/or secure such bottlers and distributors, our business could suffer.

Many of our bottlers/distributors are affiliated with and manufacture and/or distribute other carbonated, non-carbonated and other beverage products. In many cases, such products compete directly with our products.

Unilateral decisions by bottlers/distributors, buying groups, convenience chains, grocery chains, mass merchandisers, specialty chain stores, club stores, e-commerce retailers, e-commerce websites and other customers to discontinue carrying all or any of our products that they are carrying at any time, restrict the range of our products they carry, impose restrictions or limitations on the sale of our products and/or devote less resources to the sale of our products could cause our business to suffer. In addition, possible trading disputes between our bottler/distributors and their customers or buying groups may result in the delisting of certain of the Company’s products, temporarily or otherwise. Bottler/distributor consolidation may also have an impact on our business.

The TCCC North American Bottlers, Coca-Cola Europacific Partners, Coca-Cola Hellenic, Coca-Cola FEMSA, Coca-Cola Amatil, Swire Coca-Cola (China), COFCO Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Beverages Africa and Coca-Cola İçecek are our primary domestic and international distributors of our products. As a result, if we are unable to maintain good relationships with these bottlers/distributors, or they do not effectively focus on marketing, promoting, selling and distributing our products, sales of our products could be adversely affected.

A decision by our primary domestic and international bottlers/distributors or any other large customer to decrease the amount purchased from us or to cease carrying our products could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and consolidated results of operations.

The marketing efforts of our bottlers/distributors are important for our success. If our brands prove to be less attractive to our existing bottlers and distributors, if we fail to attract additional bottlers and distributors, and/or our bottlers/distributors do not market, promote and distribute our products effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Disruption in distribution channels and/or a decline in sales due to the termination and/or insolvency of existing or new bottlers/distributors may adversely affect our business and operating results.

We derive virtually all of our revenues from energy drinks, and competitive pressure in the energy drink category could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our focus is in the energy drink category, and our business is vulnerable to adverse changes impacting the energy drink category and business, which could adversely impact our business and the trading price of our common stock.

Virtually all of our sales are derived from our energy drinks, including our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks, our Reign Total Body Fuel® energy drinks and our Strategic Brands energy drinks (including our affordable brand energy drinks, principally Predator®). Any decrease in the sales of our Monster Energy® brand and other energy drinks could significantly adversely affect our future revenues and net income. Historically, we have experienced substantial competition from new entrants in the energy drink category as well as from the energy shot category. For a discussion of such competition, see “Part I, Item 1 – Business – Competition.”

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The increasing number of competitive products and limited amount of shelf space in retail stores, including in beverage coolers, may adversely impact our ability to gain or maintain our share of sales in the marketplace. In addition, certain actions of our competitors, including unsubstantiated and/or misleading claims, false advertising claims and tortious interference in our business, as well as competitors selling misbranded products, could impact our sales. Competitive pressures in the energy drink category could impact our revenues, cause price erosion and/or lower market share, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Criticism of our energy drink products and/or criticism or a negative perception of energy drinks generally could adversely affect us.

An unfavorable report on the health effects of caffeine, other ingredients in energy drinks or energy drinks generally, or criticism or negative publicity regarding the caffeine content and/or any other ingredients in our products or energy drinks generally, including product safety concerns, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Articles critical of the caffeine content and/or other ingredients in energy drinks and/or articles indicating certain health risks of energy drinks have been published in recent years. We believe the overall growth of the energy drink market in the U.S. may have been negatively impacted by the ongoing negative publicity and comments that continue to appear in the media questioning the safety of energy drinks, and suggesting limitations on their ingredients (including caffeine), and/or the levels thereof, and/or imposing minimum age restrictions for consumers. In early 2018, certain retailers in the United Kingdom announced the introduction of voluntary retailer measures to prevent the sale of energy drinks to individuals under the age of 16. If reports, studies or articles critical of caffeine and/or energy drinks continue to be published or are published in the future, or additional voluntary measures are taken, they could adversely affect the demand for our products. If we are unable to satisfy all criteria set forth in any model energy drink guidelines, including, without limitation, those adopted by the American Beverage Association, of which we are a member, and/or any international beverage associations, it could negatively affect our overall reputation, which in turn could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Increased competition in the beverage industry and changing retail landscape could hurt our business.

The beverage industry is highly competitive. The principal areas of competition are pricing, packaging, development of new products, flavors, product positioning as well as promotion and marketing strategies. Our products compete with a wide range of drinks produced by a relatively large number of manufacturers, some of which have substantially greater financial, marketing and distribution resources than we do.

Important factors affecting our ability to compete successfully include the efficacy, taste and flavor of our products, trade and consumer promotions, rapid and effective development of new and unique cutting edge products, attractive and different packaging, branded product advertising and pricing. The success of our sports marketing, social media and other general marketing endeavors may impact our business, financial condition and results of operation. Our products compete with all liquid refreshments and in some cases with products of much larger competitors, including the products of numerous nationally and internationally known producers such as TCCC, PepsiCo, Red Bull GmbH and KDP. We also compete with companies that are smaller or primarily national or local in operations. Our products also compete with private-label brands such as those carried by grocery store chains, convenience store chains and club stores.

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The rapid growth in sales through e-commerce retailers, e-commerce websites, mobile commerce applications and subscription services, and closures of physical retail operations, particularly during, and potentially following, the COVID-19 pandemic, may result in a shift away from physical retail operations to digital channels and a reduction in impulse purchases. As we build our e-commerce capabilities, we may not be able to develop and maintain successful relationships with existing and new e-commerce retailers without experiencing a deterioration of our relationships with key customers operating physical retail channels. If we are unable to profitably expand our own e-commerce capabilities and/or if e-commerce retailers take significant market share away from traditional retailers our business may be adversely affected. Further, the ability of consumers to compare prices on a real-time basis using digital technology puts additional pressure on us to maintain competitive prices. Sales in gas chains may also be affected by increased gasoline prices, improvements in fuel efficiency and increased consumer preferences for electric or alternative fuel-powered vehicles, which may result in fewer trips by consumers to gas stations and a corresponding reduction in purchases by consumers in convenience gas retailers. If we are unable to successfully adapt to the rapidly changing retail landscape, our share of sales, volume growth and overall financial results could be negatively affected.

Due to competition in the beverage industry, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter difficulties in maintaining our current revenues, market share or position in the beverage industry. If our revenues decline, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our inability to implement our growth strategy, including expanding our business in existing and new sectors, such as the alcohol beverage sector, or successfully integrate acquired businesses or assets could adversely affect our business and financial results.

Our ability to compete in the highly competitive beverage industry and to achieve our business growth objectives depends, in part, on our ability to develop new flavors, products and packaging. The success of our innovation, in turn, depends on our ability to identify consumer trends and cater to consumer preferences. If we are not successful in our innovation activities, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be adversely affected.

On February 17, 2022, we acquired CANarchy, a craft beer and hard seltzer company and may continue to make acquisitions that expand our business into new sectors in the beverage industry. Risks associated with entering into a new sector include: (1) having no or limited experience in such sector; (2) increased exposure to certain governmental regulations and compliance requirements; (3) difficulties developing, manufacturing, and marketing the products of newly acquired companies in a way that enhances the performance of our combined businesses and product lines; and (4) our lesser familiarity with consumer preferences in the new sector. Entry into new sectors of the beverage industry will bring us into competition with new competitors with a larger, more established market presence. We cannot ensure that our entry into the alcohol beverage sector or any other new beverage sectors will be profitable and future profitability may be delayed or otherwise materially adversely affected.

Overall, the effectiveness of these acquisitions can be less predictable than developing new lines of energy drinks and might not provide the anticipated benefits or desired rates of return. Integrating the operations of acquired businesses could be a difficult, costly and time-consuming process that involves a number of risks including, but not limited to, the integration of company cultures and management teams, retaining key employees and customers, increased exposure to certain governmental regulations and compliance requirements, increased costs, and use of resources. Even if we successfully integrate acquired businesses, it is possible that we will not realize the expected benefits from any completed acquisition over the timeframe we expect, or at all, or that our existing operations will be adversely affected as a result of acquisitions. The costs of achieving these benefits could also be higher than we expected. Therefore, the acquisition and integration of acquired businesses may not contribute to our earnings as expected, we may not achieve profit margin targets when expected, or at all, and we may not achieve the other anticipated strategic financial benefits of such transactions.  

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Changes in consumer product and shopping preferences may reduce demand for our products.

The beverage industry is subject to changing consumer preferences and shifts in consumer preferences may adversely affect us. There is increasing awareness of and concern for health, wellness and nutrition considerations, including concerns regarding caloric intake associated with sugar-sweetened beverages and the perceived undesirability of artificial ingredients. Some consumer advocacy groups and others have expressed concerns regarding certain ingredients in diet sodas, which are contained in certain of our energy drinks. There are also changes in demand for different packages, sizes and configurations. This may reduce demand for our beverages, which could reduce our revenues and adversely affect our results of operations.

Consumers are seeking greater variety in their beverages. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our continued ability to develop and introduce different and innovative beverages that appeal to consumers. In order to retain and expand our market share, we must continue to develop and introduce different and innovative beverages and be competitive in the areas of efficacy, taste, quality and price, although there can be no assurance of our ability to do so. There is no assurance that consumers will continue to purchase our products in the future. Product lifecycles for some beverage brands, products and/or packages may be limited to a few years before consumers’ preferences change. The beverages we currently market are in varying stages of their product lifecycles, and there can be no assurance that such beverages will become or remain profitable for us. We may be unable to achieve volume growth through product and packaging initiatives. We may also be unable to penetrate new markets. Additionally, as shopping patterns are being affected by the digital evolution, with customers embracing shopping by way of mobile device applications, e-commerce retailers and e-commerce websites or platforms, we may be unable to address or anticipate changes in consumer shopping preferences or engage with our customers on their preferred platforms. If our revenues decline, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our continued expansion outside of the United States exposes us to uncertain conditions and other risks in international markets.

We have continued expanding our operations internationally into a variety of new markets. Our net sales to customers outside of the United States were approximately 37%, 33% and 32% of consolidated net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As our growth strategy includes further expanding our international business, if we are unable to continue to expand distribution of our products outside the United States, our growth rate could be adversely affected. In many international markets, we have limited operating experience and in some international markets we have no operating experience. It is costly to establish, develop and maintain international operations and develop and promote our brands in international markets. Our percentage gross profit margins in many international markets are expected to be less than the comparable percentage gross profit margins obtained in the United States. We face and will continue to face substantial risks associated with having foreign operations, including: economic and/or political instability in our international markets; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; restrictions on or costs relating to the repatriation of foreign profits to the United States, including possible taxes and/or withholding obligations on any repatriations; and tariffs and/or trade restrictions. These risks could have a significant impact on our ability to sell our products on a competitive basis in international markets and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, our operations outside of the United States are subject to risks relating to appropriate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements in local jurisdictions, potential difficulties in staffing and managing local operations, higher product damages, particularly when products are shipped long distances, potentially higher incidence of fraud and/or corruption, credit risk of local customers and distributors and potentially adverse tax consequences.

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If we are not able to pass on increases in the costs of raw materials, including aluminum cans and/or ingredients and/or fuel and/or costs of co-packing, such inability could harm our business and result in a higher cost base. Shortages of raw materials including aluminum cans and/or ingredients and/or fuel and/or costs of co-packing could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

The principal raw materials used by us are aluminum cans, sleek aluminum cans, aluminum cap cans, aluminum cans with re-sealable ends, PET plastic bottles, caps, flavors, juice concentrates, glucose, sugar, sucralose, milk, cream, protein, coffee, tea, cocoa, supplement ingredients and other packaging materials, the costs and availability of which are subject to fluctuations. For certain flavors purchased from third-party suppliers and used in a limited number of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks and/or our Strategic Brands energy drinks, these third-party flavor suppliers own the proprietary rights to certain of their flavor formulas. We do not have possession of the list of such flavor ingredients or formulas used in the production of certain of our products and certain of our blended concentrates, and we may be unable to obtain comparable flavors or concentrates from alternative suppliers on short notice. Our third-party flavor suppliers generally do not make such flavors and/or blended concentrates available to other third-party customers. We have identified alternative suppliers for certain of the ingredients contained in many of our beverages. However, industry-wide shortages of certain flavor ingredients, flavors, fruits and fruit juices, coffee, tea, cocoa, dairy-based products, packaging materials (including aluminum cans) supplement ingredients and sweeteners have been, and could from time to time in the future be, encountered, which could interfere with and/or delay production of certain of our products. In addition, certain of our co-packing arrangements allow such co-packers to increase their fees based on certain of their own cost increases. We are uncertain whether the prices of any of the above or any other raw materials or ingredients, many of which have recently risen significantly, will continue to rise or may rise in the future. We are unsure whether we will be able to pass any of such increases on to our customers. Although we generally do not use hedging agreements or alternative instruments to manage the risks associated with securing sufficient ingredients or raw materials, from time to time, we, through our aluminum can suppliers, enter into purchase agreements for the purchase of aluminum, as well as enter into purchase agreements for portions of our annual anticipated requirements for certain of our other raw materials such as glucose, sugar and sucralose. In recent years, the United States has imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum as well as on goods imported from certain countries. Additional tariffs imposed by the United States on a broader range of imports, or further trade measures taken by other countries, could result in an increase in supply chain costs.

Our failure to accurately estimate demand for our products or maintain sufficient inventory levels could adversely affect our business and financial results.

We may not correctly estimate demand for our existing products and/or new products. Our ability to estimate demand for our products is imprecise, particularly with regard to new products, and may be less precise during periods of rapid growth, including in new markets. If we materially underestimate demand for our products or are unable to secure sufficient ingredients or raw materials including, but not limited to, aluminum cans, aluminum cap cans, sleek aluminum cans, aluminum cans with re-sealable ends, PET plastic bottles, caps, labels, sucralose, flavor ingredients, flavors, supplement ingredients, juice concentrates, certain sweeteners, coffee, tea, cocoa, protein and packaging materials or experience difficulties with our co-packing arrangements, including production shortages or quality issues, we might not be able to satisfy demand on a short-term basis. Moreover, industry-wide shortages of certain juice concentrates, supplement ingredients and sweeteners have been and could, from time to time in the future, be experienced, resulting in production fluctuations and/or product shortages. We generally do not use hedging agreements or alternative instruments to manage this risk. Such shortages could interfere with and/or delay production of certain of our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

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If we do not accurately anticipate the future demand for a particular product or the time it will take to obtain new inventory, our inventory levels may be inadequate and our results of operations may be negatively impacted. If we fail to meet our shipping schedules, we could damage our relationships with distributors and/or retailers, increase our distribution costs and/or cause sales opportunities to be delayed or lost. In order to be able to deliver our products on a timely basis, we need to maintain adequate inventory levels of the desired products. If the inventory of our products held by our distributors and/or retailers is too high, they will not place orders for additional products, which could unfavorably impact our future sales and adversely affect our operating results.

The costs of packaging supplies, ocean and domestic freight, and inflation generally may adversely affect our results of operations.

Many of our packaging supply contracts allow our suppliers to alter the costs they charge us for packaging supplies based on changes in the costs of the underlying commodities that are used to produce those packaging supplies, such as aluminum for cans, PET plastic for bottles and pulp and paper for cartons and/or trays. These changes in the prices we pay for our packaging supplies occur at certain predetermined times that vary by product and supplier. In some cases, we are able to fix the prices of certain packaging supplies and/or commodities for a reasonable period. In other cases, we bear the risk of increases in the costs of these packaging supplies, including the underlying costs of the commodities that comprise these packaging supplies. We do not use derivative instruments to manage this risk. Recently, inflation has affected, and continues to affect, our raw materials costs, commodities and other inputs globally. If the costs of packaging supplies and other costs, as well as ocean and domestic freight rates, continue to increase, we may be unable to pass these costs along to our customers through corresponding adjustments to the prices we charge, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Global or regional catastrophic events could impact our operations and affect our ability to grow our business.

Because of our increasingly global presence, our business could be affected by unstable political conditions, civil unrest, protests and demonstrations, large-scale terrorist acts, especially those directed against the United States or other major industrialized countries where our products are distributed, the outbreak or escalation of armed hostilities, major natural disasters and extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes, wildfires, tornados, earthquakes or floods, or widespread outbreaks of infectious diseases (such as the COVID-19 pandemic). Such catastrophic events could impact our operations and our supply chain, including the production and/or distribution of our products. Materials and/or personnel may need to mobilize to other locations. Our headquarters and a large part of our operations are located in California, a state at greater risk of earthquakes and wildfires. Some of the raw materials we use, including certain sizes of cans, are available from limited suppliers, and a regional catastrophic event impacting such suppliers could adversely impact our operations. In addition, such events could disrupt global or regional economic activity, which could affect consumer purchasing power and consumers’ ability to purchase our products, thereby reducing demand for our products. If our operations are disrupted or we are unable to grow our business as a result of these factors, our growth rate could decline and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Climate change and natural disasters may affect our business.

There is concern that a gradual increase in global average temperatures due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could cause significant changes in weather patterns around the globe and an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Changing weather patterns could result in decreased agricultural productivity in certain regions, and/or outbreaks of diseases or other health issues, which may limit availability and/or increase the cost of certain key ingredients, juice concentrates, supplements and other ingredients used in our products and could impact the food security of communities around the world. Increased frequency or duration of extreme weather conditions could also impair production capabilities, disrupt our supply chain and/or impact demand for our products.

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Natural disasters and extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes or floods, and outbreaks of diseases (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) or other health issues may affect our operations and the operation of our supply chain, impact the operations of our bottlers/distributors and unfavorably impact our consumers’ ability to purchase our products. The predicted effects of climate change may also result in challenges regarding availability and quality of water, or less favorable pricing for water, which could adversely impact our business and results of operations. In addition, public expectations for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions could result in increased energy, transportation and raw material costs, and may require us to make additional investments in facilities and equipment. Changes in applicable laws, regulations, standards or practices related to greenhouse gas emissions, packaging and water scarcity, as well as initiatives by advocacy groups in favor of certain climate change-related laws, regulations, standards or practices, may result in increased compliance costs, capital expenditures and other financial obligations, which could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Sales of our products may also be influenced to some extent by weather conditions in the markets in which we operate. We, our bottlers and our contract packers, use a number of key ingredients in the manufacture of our beverage products that are derived from agricultural commodities such as sugar, coffee, tea and cocoa. Increased demand for food products and decreased agricultural productivity in certain regions of the world as a result of changing weather patterns and other factors may limit the availability or increase the cost of such agricultural commodities and could impact the food security of communities around the world. Weather conditions may influence consumer demand for certain of our beverages, which could have an effect on our operations, either positively or negatively.

If we are not able to retain the services of our workforce, there may be an adverse effect on our operations and/or our operating performance until we find suitable replacements.

Our business is dependent, to a large extent, upon the services of our workforce. We do not maintain key person life insurance on any members of our senior management. The loss of services of either Rodney Sacks, Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Hilton Schlosberg, Vice Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer, or any other key members of our senior management could adversely affect our business until suitable replacements can be found. There may be a limited number of personnel with the requisite skills to serve in these positions, and we may be unable to locate or employ such qualified personnel on acceptable terms.

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Negative publicity (whether or not warranted) could damage our brand image and corporate reputation, and may cause our business to suffer.

Our success depends on our ability to build and maintain the brand image for our existing products, new products and brand extensions and maintain our corporate reputation. There can be no assurance that our advertising, marketing and promotional programs and our commitment to product safety and quality, human rights and environmental sustainability will have the desired impact on our products’ brand image and on consumer preferences and demand. Claims regarding product safety, quality and/or ingredient content issues, efficacy or lack thereof (real or imagined), our culture and our workforce, our environmental impact and the sustainability of our operations, or allegations of product contamination, even if false or unfounded, could tarnish the image of our brands and may cause consumers to choose other products. Consumer demand for our products could diminish significantly if we, our employees, bottlers/distributors, suppliers or business partners fail to preserve the quality of our products, act or are perceived to act in an unethical, illegal, discriminatory, unequal or socially irresponsible manner, including with respect to the sourcing, content or sale of our products, service and treatment of our customers, or the use of customer data. Furthermore, our brand image or perceived product quality could be adversely affected by litigation, unfavorable reports in the media (internet or elsewhere), studies in general and regulatory or other governmental inquiries (in each case whether involving our products or those of our competitors) and proposed or new legislation affecting our industry. Negative postings or comments on social media or networking websites about the Company or any one of our brands, even if inaccurate or malicious, could generate adverse publicity that could damage the reputation of our brands or the Company. Business incidents, whether isolated or recurring and whether originating from us, our bottlers/distributors, suppliers or business partners, that erode consumer trust can significantly reduce brand value or potentially trigger boycotts of our products and can have a negative impact on consumer demand for our products as well as our reputation and financial results. The impact of such incidents may be exacerbated if they receive considerable publicity, including rapidly through social or digital media (including for malicious reasons) or result in litigation.

In addition, from time to time, there are public policy endeavors that are either directly related to our products and packaging or to our business. These public policy debates can occasionally be the subject of backlash from advocacy groups that have a differing point of view and could result in adverse media and consumer reaction, including product boycotts. Similarly, our sponsorship relationships could subject us to negative publicity as a result of actual or alleged misconduct by individuals or entities associated with organizations we sponsor or support. Likewise, campaigns by activists connecting us, or our supply chain, with human and workplace rights, environmental or animal rights issues could adversely impact our corporate image and reputation. We have made a number of commitments to respect human rights, including the policies and initiatives described in our California Transparency in Supply Chains Act & United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act statement. Allegations, even if untrue, that we are not respecting the human rights found in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights; actual or perceived failure by our suppliers or other business partners to comply with applicable labor and workplace rights laws, including child labor laws, or their actual or perceived abuse or misuse of migrant workers; adverse publicity surrounding obesity and health concerns related to our products, water usage, our environmental impact and the sustainability of our operations, labor relations, our culture and our workforce or the like could negatively affect our Company’s overall reputation and brand image, which in turn could have a negative impact on our products’ acceptance by consumers.

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Government Regulation and Litigation Risks

Changes in government regulation, or failure to comply with existing regulations, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Legislation has been proposed and/or adopted at the U.S. federal, state and/or municipal level and proposed and/or adopted in certain foreign jurisdictions to restrict the sale of energy drinks (including, prohibiting the sale of energy drinks at certain establishments or pursuant to certain governmental programs), limit the content of caffeine and other ingredients in beverages, require certain product labeling disclosures and/or warnings, impose excise taxes, limit product size or impose age restrictions for the sale of energy drinks. For a discussion of certain of such legislation, see “Part I, Item 1 – Business – Government Regulation.” Furthermore, additional legislation may be introduced in the United States and other countries at the federal, state, local, municipal and supranational level in respect of each of the foregoing subject areas. Public health officials and health advocates are increasingly focused on the public health consequences associated with obesity, especially as it affects children, and are seeking legislative change to reduce the consumption of sweetened beverages. There also has been increased focus on caffeine content in beverages, and we are seeing some attention to other ingredients in energy drinks. To the extent any such legislation is enacted in one or more jurisdictions where a significant amount of our products are sold, individually or in the aggregate, it could result in a reduction in demand for, or availability of, our energy drinks, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The production, distribution and sale in the United States of many of our products are also currently subject to various federal and state regulations, including, but not limited to: the FD&C Act; the Occupational Safety and Health Act; various environmental statutes; data privacy laws; California Proposition 65; and various other federal, state and local statutes and regulations applicable to the production, transportation, sale, safety, advertising, labeling, packaging and ingredients of such products.

Outside the United States, the production, distribution and sale of many of our products are also subject to numerous statutes and regulations.

If a regulatory authority finds that a current or future product, its label, or a production run is not in compliance with any of these regulations, we may be fined, or the products in question may have to be recalled, removed from the market, reformulated and/or have the packaging changed, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Significant changes to or failure to comply with various environmental laws may expose us to liability and/or cause certain of our facilities to close, relocate or operate at reduced production levels, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We, and our co-packers, are subject to a wide and increasingly broad array of federal, state, regional, local, and international environmental laws, including statutes and regulations, which aim to regulate emissions and impacts to air, land, and water. Our operations may result in odors, noise, or other pollutants being emitted from our facilities. Failure to comply with these environmental laws or any future changes to them could result in alleged harm to our employees or others near our facilities, significant costs to satisfy environmental compliance, remediation or compensatory requirements, or the imposition of penalties or restrictions on operations by governmental agencies or courts. In 2021, an AFF facility, which manufactures the primary flavors for our Monster Energy® Drinks segment, received notices of violation for emitting odors and for failing to properly permit its equipment. Failure to comply with the notices and remediate certain emissions at this facility, or other facilities, may result in penalties, liability for damages, alterations to our facilities’ operations, or the closing or relocation of a facility. Such actions may result in flavor shortages, which could in turn result in shortages for our finished products and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Increasing concern over environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters, including climate change, will likely result in new or revised laws and regulations aimed at reducing or mitigating the potential effects of greenhouse gases, restricting or increasing the costs of commercial water use due to local water scarcity concerns, or increasing mandatory reporting of certain ESG metrics, such as recycling. If we fail to comply with applicable environmental compliance mandates or fail to meet sustainability metrics, our business operations and our reputation could be adversely impacted.

We cannot predict the effect of possible inquiries from and/or actions by attorneys general, other government agencies and/or quasi-government agencies into the production, advertising, marketing, promotion, labeling, ingredients, usage and/or sale of our energy drink products.

We are subject to the risks of investigations and/or enforcement actions by state attorneys general and/or other government and/or quasi-governmental agencies relating to the advertising, marketing, promotion, ingredients, usage and/or sale of our energy drinks, and we are a party, from time to time, to various government and regulatory inquiries and/or proceedings. Defending these proceedings can result in significant ongoing expenditures and the diversion of our management’s time and attention from the operation of our business, which could have a negative effect on our business operations.

In addition, from time to time, government and/or quasi-governmental agencies may investigate the safety of caffeine and other ingredients in energy drinks. If an inquiry by a state attorney general or other government or quasi-government agency finds that our products and/or the advertising, marketing, promotion, ingredients, usage and/or sale of such products are not in compliance with applicable laws or regulations, we may become subject to fines, product reformulations, container changes, changes in the usage or sale of our energy drink products and/or changes in our advertising, marketing and promotion practices, each of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Litigation regarding our products, and related unfavorable media attention, could expose us to significant liabilities and reduce demand for our products, thus negatively affecting our financial results.

We have been and are a party, from time to time, to various litigation claims and legal proceedings, including, but not limited to, intellectual property, fraud, unfair business practices, false advertising, product liability, breach of contract claims, claims from prior distributors, labor and employment matters, personal injury matters, consumer class actions, securities actions and shareholder derivative actions.

Other lawsuits have been filed against us claiming that certain statements made in our advertisements and/or on the labels of our products were false and/or misleading or otherwise not in compliance with food standards under local law, and/or that our products are not safe. Putative class action lawsuits have also been filed against certain of our competitors asserting that certain claims in their advertisements amount to false advertising. We do not believe any statements made by us in our promotional materials or set forth on our product labels are false or misleading or noncompliant with local law, or that our products are in any way unsafe, and we vigorously defend such lawsuits.

Any of the foregoing matters or other litigation, the threat thereof, or unfavorable media attention arising from pending or threatened product-related litigation could consume significant financial and managerial resources and result in decreased demand for our products, significant monetary awards against us, an injunction barring the sale of any of our products and injury to our reputation. Our failure to successfully defend or settle any litigation or legal proceedings could result in liabilities that, to the extent not covered by our insurance, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, revenue and profitability, and could cause the market value of our common stock to decline.

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If we encounter material product recalls, our business may suffer material losses and such recalls could damage our brand image and corporate reputation, also resulting in material losses.

We may be required from time to time to recall products entirely or from specific co-packers, markets, retailers or batches or reformulate certain of our products if such products become contaminated, damaged, mislabeled, defective or otherwise materially non-compliant with applicable regulatory requirements. A material product recall could adversely affect our profitability and our brand image and corporate reputation. We do not maintain recall insurance.

Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Data Privacy Risks

Our intellectual property rights are critical to our success, and the loss of such rights could materially adversely affect our business.

We own numerous trademarks that are very important to our business. We also own the copyright in, and to, a portion of the content on the packaging of our products. We regard our trademarks, copyrights and similar intellectual property as critical to our success and attempt to protect such intellectual property through registration and enforcement actions. However, there can be no assurance that other parties will not infringe or misappropriate our trademarks, copyrights and similar proprietary rights. We also have been, and may in the future be, unable to use our trademarks, trade names or designs and/or trade dress in certain countries, which may impact sales of the affected brands and require increased expenditures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We must continually maintain, monitor, protect and/or upgrade our information technology systems, including protecting us from internal and external cybersecurity threats.

Information technology enables us to operate efficiently, interface with customers, maintain financial accuracy and efficiency and accurately produce our financial statements. If we do not appropriately allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and sustain the proper technology infrastructure, we could be subject to transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, the loss of customers, business disruptions, and/or the loss of and/or damage to intellectual property through security breaches, including internal and external cybersecurity threats. Cybersecurity attacks are evolving, may be difficult to detect for periods of time, and include, but are not limited to, malicious software (malware, ransomware and viruses), phishing and social engineering, attempts to gain unauthorized access to networks, computer systems and data, malicious or negligent actions of employees (including misuse of information they are entitled to access), cyber extortion and other forms of electronic security breaches. Such attacks could lead to disruptions in or loss of access to our data or business systems, an inability to process customer orders and/or lost customer orders, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information, lost revenues or other costs due to office, plant, warehouse or other facility disruption or shutdown, and corruption of data.

We rely on relationships with third parties, including suppliers, distributors, bottlers, contract packers, contractors, cloud data storage and other information technology service providers and other external business partners, for certain functions or for services in support of our operations. These third-party service providers and partners, with whom we may share data, are subject to similar risks as we are relating to cybersecurity, privacy violations, business interruption, and systems, as well as employee failures. While we have procedures in place for selecting and managing our relationships with third-party service providers and other business partners, we do not have control over their business operations or governance and compliance systems, practices and procedures, which increases our financial, legal, reputational and operational risk. These third parties may experience cybersecurity incidents that may involve data we share with them or rely on them to provide to us, and the need to coordinate with such third-parties, including with respect to timely notification and access to personnel and information concerning an incident, may complicate our efforts to resolve any issues that arise.

However, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions, we could potentially be subject to operational interruption, damage to our brand image and private data exposure.

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Moreover, if our data management systems, including our SAP enterprise resource planning system, do not effectively collect, store, process and report relevant data for the operation of our business (whether due to equipment malfunction or constraints, software deficiencies, cybersecurity attack and/or human error), our ability to effectively plan, forecast and execute our business plan and comply with applicable laws and regulations will be impaired, perhaps materially. Any such impairment could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the timeliness with which we report our internal and external operating results.

If we fail to comply with data privacy and personal data protection laws, we could be subject to adverse publicity, government enforcement actions and/or private litigation, which may negatively impact our business and operating results.

We receive, process, transmit and store information relating to certain identified or identifiable individuals (“personal data”), including current and former employees, in the ordinary course of business. As a result, we are subject to various U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations relating to personal data. These laws are subject to change, and new personal data legislation may be enacted in other jurisdictions at any time. In the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) became effective in May 2018 for all member states. The GDPR includes operational requirements for companies receiving or processing personal data of residents of the European Union different from those that were previously in place and also includes significant penalties for noncompliance. Additionally, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which was enacted in June 2018 and came into effect on January 1, 2020, provides a new private right of action and statutory damages for certain data breaches and imposes operational requirements on companies that process personal data of California residents, including making new disclosures to consumers about data collection, processing and sharing practices and allowing consumers to opt out of certain data sharing with third parties.

Changes introduced by the GDPR and the CCPA, as well as other changes to existing personal data protection laws and the introduction of such laws in other jurisdictions, subject the Company to, among other things, additional costs and expenses and may require costly changes to our business practices and security systems, policies, procedures and practices. There can be no assurances that our security controls over personal data, training of personnel on data privacy and data security, vendor management processes, and the policies, procedures and practices we implement will prevent the improper processing or breaches of personal data. Data breaches or improper processing, or breaches of personal data in violation of the GDPR, the CCPA and/or of other personal data protection or privacy laws and regulations, could harm our reputation, cause loss of consumer confidence, subject us to government enforcement actions (including fines), or result in private litigation against us, which may result in potential loss of revenue, increased costs, liability for monetary damages or fines and/or criminal prosecution, thereby negatively impacting our business and operating results.

Financial Risks

Fluctuations in our effective tax rate could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to income and other taxes in both the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions. Therefore, we are subject to audits for multiple tax years in various jurisdictions at once.

We are in various stages of examination with certain states and certain foreign jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom and Ireland. Our 2018 through 2020 U.S. federal income tax returns are subject to examination by the IRS. Our state income tax returns are subject to examination for the 2017 through 2020 tax years.

At any given time, events may occur which change our expectation about how any such tax audits will be resolved and thus, there could be significant variability in our quarterly and/or annual tax rates, because these events may change our plans for uncertain tax positions.

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Changes in U.S. tax laws as a result of any legislation proposed by the new U.S. Presidential Administration or U.S. Congress, which may include efforts to change or repeal the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and the federal corporate income tax rate reduction, could adversely affect our provision for income taxes, resulting in an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, changes in the manner in which U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign earnings, including changes in how existing tax laws are interpreted or enforced, could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) has recommended changes to numerous long-standing international tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (“BEPS”) project. These changes, to the extent adopted, may increase tax uncertainty, result in higher compliance costs and adversely affect our provision for income taxes, results of operations and/or cash flow. In connection with the OECD’s BEPS project, companies are required to disclose more information to tax authorities on operations around the world, which may lead to greater audit scrutiny of profits earned in various countries. Economic and political pressures to increase tax revenues in jurisdictions in which we operate, or the adoption of new or reformed tax legislation or regulation, may make resolving tax disputes more difficult and the final resolution of tax audits and any related litigation could differ from our historical provisions and accruals, resulting in an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

We may be required in the future to record a significant charge to earnings if our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired.

Under United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”), we are required to review our intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our intangible assets may not be recoverable include, declining or slower than anticipated growth rates for certain of our existing products, a decline in stock price and market capitalization, and slower growth rates in our industry.

We may be required in the future to record a significant charge to earnings during the period in which we determine that our intangible assets have been impaired. Any such charge would adversely impact our results of operations. As of December 31, 2021, our goodwill totaled approximately $1.33 billion and other intangible assets totaled approximately $1.07 billion.

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may adversely affect our operating results.

We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk with respect to our sales, expenses, profits, assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We enter into forward currency exchange contracts with financial institutions to create an economic hedge to specifically manage a portion of the foreign exchange risk exposure associated with certain consolidated subsidiaries’ non-functional currency denominated assets and liabilities. We have not used instruments to hedge against all foreign currency risks and are therefore not protected against all foreign currency fluctuations. As a result, our reported earnings may be affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Moreover, any favorable impacts to profit margins or financial results from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates are likely to be unsustainable over time. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, aggregate foreign currency transaction gains (losses), including the gains or losses on forward currency exchange contracts, amounted to $0.3 million, ($11.2) million and ($4.1) million, respectively.

Potential changes in accounting standards or practices and/or taxation may adversely affect our financial results.

We cannot predict the impact that future changes in accounting standards or practices may have on our financial results. New accounting standards could be issued that change the way we record revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities. These changes in accounting standards could adversely affect our reported earnings. Increases in direct and indirect income tax rates could affect after-tax income. Equally, increases in indirect taxes (including environmental taxes pertaining to the disposal of beverage containers and/or indirect taxes on beverages generally or energy drinks in particular) could affect our products’ affordability and reduce our sales.

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If we fail to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting on a consolidated basis, our stock price and investor confidence in the Company could be materially and adversely affected.

We are required to maintain both disclosure controls and procedures as well as internal control over financial reporting that are effective for the purposes described in “Part II, Item 9A – Controls and Procedures.” If we fail to maintain such controls and procedures, our business, results of operations, financial condition and/or the value of our stock could be materially harmed.

Uncertainty in the financial markets and other adverse changes in general economic or political conditions in any of the major countries in which we do business could adversely affect our industry, business and results of operations.

Global economic uncertainties, including highly inflationary economies and foreign currency exchange rates, affect businesses such as ours in a number of ways, making it difficult to accurately forecast and plan our future business activities. There can be no assurance that economic improvements will occur, or that they would be sustainable, or that they would enhance conditions in markets relevant to us. In addition, we cannot predict the duration and severity of disruptions in any of our markets or the impact they may have on our customers or business, as our expansion outside of the United States has increased our exposure to any developments or crises in African, Asian, European and other international markets. Unfavorable economic conditions and financial uncertainties in our major international markets and unstable political conditions, including civil unrest and governmental changes, in certain of our other international markets could undermine global consumer confidence and reduce consumers’ purchasing power, thereby reducing demand for our products. Included in the foregoing are long-term uncertainties surrounding the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union on January 31, 2020 (commonly referred to as “Brexit”) and any resulting increases in tariffs, importation restrictions, out of stocks, volatility in currency exchange rates, including the valuation of the euro and the British pound in particular, changes in the laws and regulations applied in the United Kingdom or impacts on economic and market conditions in the United Kingdom, the European Union and its member states and elsewhere.

Default by or failure of one or more of our counterparty financial institutions could cause us to incur significant losses.

As part of any hedging activities that we may conduct, we may enter into transactions involving derivative financial instruments, including forward contracts, commodity futures contracts, option contracts, collars and swaps, with various financial institutions. We also have significant amounts of cash, cash equivalents and other investments on deposit or in accounts with banks or other financial institutions both in the United States and abroad, exposing us to risk of default by or failure of such counterparty financial institutions. This risk of counterparty default or failure is greater during periods of economic downturn or uncertainty in financial markets. If one of our counterparties became insolvent or filed for bankruptcy, our ability to recover losses incurred due to the default or to retrieve assets deposited or held in accounts with such counterparty may be limited by the counterparty’s liquidity or applicable laws governing insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings. Default by or failure of one or more of our counterparties could cause us to incur significant losses and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

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Volatility of stock price may restrict sale opportunities.

Our stock price is affected by a number of factors, including stockholder expectations, financial results, the introduction of new products by us and our competitors, general economic and market conditions such as inflation, estimates and projections by the investment community and public comments by other parties as well as many other factors including litigation, many of which are beyond our control. We do not provide guidance on our future performance, including, but not limited to, our revenues, margins, product mix, operating expenses or net income. We may be unable to achieve analysts’ net revenue and/or earnings forecasts, which are based on their own projected revenues, sales volumes and sales mix of many product types and/or new products, certain of which are more profitable than others, as well as their own estimates of gross margin and operating expenses. There can be no assurance that we will achieve any such projected levels or mix of product sales, revenues, gross margins, operating profits and/or net income. As a result, our stock price is subject to significant volatility, and stockholders may not be able to sell our stock at attractive prices. In addition, periods of volatility in the market price of our stock could result in the initiation of securities class action litigation against us. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, the high of our stock price was $99.89 and the low was $80.92.

Our investments are subject to risks which may cause losses and affect the liquidity of these investments.

At December 31, 2021, we had $1.33 billion in cash and cash equivalents, $1.75 billion in short-term investments and $99.4 million in long-term investments, including certificates of deposit, commercial paper, U.S. government agency securities, U.S. treasuries, and to a lesser extent, municipal securities. Certain of these investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market and interest rate risks. These risks associated with our investment portfolio may have an adverse effect on our future results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.

ITEM 1B.        UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.           PROPERTIES

As of February 16, 2022, our principal properties include our corporate headquarters as well as our Southern California warehouse and distribution center.

Our owned corporate facilities located in Corona, California, consist of (i) an approximately 141,000 square-foot, free-standing, six-story building (LEED Gold and ENERGY STAR certified), (ii) an approximately 147,625 square-foot three-story parking structure and storage facility, which houses our approximately 14,000 square-foot quality control laboratory, (iii) an approximately 75,426 square foot, free-standing, three-story building (currently pursuing ENERGY STAR certification), (iv) an approximately 20,661 square-foot, free-standing, single-story building and (v) an approximately 49,617 square-foot, free-standing, two-story building.

Our owned Southern California warehouse and distribution center is located in Rialto, California, consisting of an approximately 1,000,000 square-foot building which is LEED certified.

During 2020, we purchased a three-story office building located in Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

During 2019, we acquired a manufacturing plant and adjoining land in Athy, County Kildare, Ireland to produce and supply ingredients, including flavors, for certain of our international markets.

During 2019, we purchased approximately 7.66 acres of land in San Fernando, California. We are in the process of constructing a new production facility thereon to consolidate AFF’s operations into a single location.

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In addition, we lease many smaller office and/or warehouse spaces, both domestically and in certain international locations.

ITEM 3.          LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time in the normal course of business, the Company is named in litigation, including labor and employment matters, personal injury matters, consumer class actions, intellectual property matters and claims from prior distributors. Although it is not possible to predict the ultimate outcome of such litigation, based on the facts known to the Company, management believes that such litigation in aggregate will likely not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.

The Company evaluates, on a quarterly basis, developments in legal proceedings and other matters that could cause an increase or decrease in the amount of the liability that is accrued, if any, and any related insurance reimbursements. As of December 31, 2021, no loss contingencies were included in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.

ITEM 4.          MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5.          MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Principal Market

The Company’s common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol, “MNST”. As of February 16, 2022, there were 529,358,860 shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding held by approximately 189 holders of record. The holders of record do not include those stockholders whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

Stock Price and Dividend Information

We have not paid cash dividends to our stockholders since our inception and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

On March 13, 2020, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized a new share repurchase program for the purchase of up to $500.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock (the “March 2020 Repurchase Plan”). During the year ended December 31, 2021, no shares were purchased under the March 2020 Repurchase Plan. As of February 28, 2022, $441.5 million remained available for repurchase under the March 2020 Repurchase Plan.

During the year ended December 31, 2021, 0.2 million shares of common stock were purchased from employees in lieu of cash payments for options exercised or withholding taxes due for a total amount of $13.8 million. While such purchases are considered common stock repurchases, they are not counted as purchases against the Company’s authorized share repurchase programs. Such shares are included in common stock in treasury in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2021.

No shares were repurchased during the quarter ended December 31, 2021.

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Performance Graph

The following graph shows a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns:1

Graphic

1Annual return assumes reinvestment of dividends. Cumulative total return assumes an initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2016. The Company’s self-selected peer group is comprised of TCCC, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. (through July 9, 2018), Keurig Dr. Pepper Inc. (after July 10, 2018), National Beverage Corporation, Jones Soda Company and PepsiCo, Inc.

ITEM 6.           [RESERVED]

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ITEM 7.          MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is provided as a supplement to – and should be read in conjunction with – our financial statements and the accompanying notes (“Notes”) included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s current expectations, estimates and projections about our business and operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated and expressed in such forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors.”

This overview provides our perspective on the individual sections of MD&A. MD&A includes the following sections:

The COVID-19 Pandemic – a discussion of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business employees and operations;
Our Business – a general description of our business, the value drivers of our business, and opportunities and risks facing our Company, stock repurchases, acquisitions and divestitures;
Results of Operations an analysis of our consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020;
Sales – details of our sales measured on a quarterly basis in both dollars and cases;
Inflation – information about the impact that inflation may or may not have on our results;
Liquidity and Capital Resources – an analysis of our cash flows, sources and uses of cash and contractual obligations;
Accounting Policies and Pronouncements – a discussion of accounting policies that require critical judgments and estimates including newly issued accounting pronouncements;
Forward-Looking Statements – cautionary information about forward-looking statements and a description of certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the Company’s historical results or our current expectations or projections; and
Market Risks – information about market risks and risk management. (See “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Part II, Item 7A – Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures about Market Risks”).

The COVID – 19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has directly and indirectly impacted our business. The duration and severity of this impact will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the emergence of new variants, the actions taken to limit its spread and the economic impact on local, regional, national and international markets. See “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors.”

We continue to address the COVID-19 pandemic with a global task force team working to mitigate the potential impacts on our people and business.

We are incredibly proud of the teamwork exhibited by our employees, co-packers and bottlers/distributors around the world who are endeavoring to maintain the integrity of our supply chain. Despite the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we achieved record annual net sales in 2021.

As countries continue to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, and as governments and/or local authorities impose regulations regarding COVID-19 testing, vaccine mandates and related workplace restrictions, there remains a risk that the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to impact our business and supply chain, including our ability to recruit and/or retain our employees as well as impact our co-packers, bottlers/distributors and/or suppliers.

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A reduction in demand for our products or changes in consumer purchasing and consumption patterns, as well as continued economic uncertainty as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect the financial conditions of retailers and consumers, resulting in reduced or canceled orders for our products, purchase returns and closings of retail or wholesale establishments or other locations in which our products are sold.

Our Distribution and Supply Chain

In 2021, we experienced a number of global supply chain challenges as a result of unanticipated increases in demand, in part due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which adversely impacted both cost of sales and operating costs, and in certain markets, affected the availability of our products on shelves at retailers. In particular, we have experienced shortages in our aluminum can requirements, freight inefficiencies, shortages of shipping containers, port of entry congestion, and delays in the receipt and/or availability of certain ingredients. In the United States, we lacked sufficient co-packing capacity to meet increased demand for certain of our products. We have also experienced increased aluminum can costs attributable to higher aluminum commodity pricing as well as the costs of importing aluminum cans. In addition, we experienced increased ingredient and other input costs, including shipping and freight, labor, trucking, fuel, co-packing fees, secondary packaging materials, increased outbound freight costs and production inefficiencies, which resulted in increased costs of sales and increased operating costs.

We have addressed and will continue to address the controllable challenges in our supply chain, which remains largely intact. Additional can manufacturing capacity in the United States has been secured for 2022, although the Company will continue to import aluminum cans to supplement its domestic can supply. Can capacity in EMEA remains challenging and the Company expects to continue to import aluminum cans into EMEA for at least 2022. While co-packing capacity in the United States and EMEA also continues to be challenging, we have expanded our network in the United States and EMEA to substantially address supply constraints. Our flavor facility in Athy, Ireland is operational, producing certain flavors and blends for the EMEA region, is steadily increasing production, and is investigating the feasibility of a juice plant to produce EMEA’s juice product requirements. We continue to implement measures to mitigate our increased operating costs through pricing actions and reductions in promotions.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of the date of this filing, we expect to maintain substantial liquidity as we manage through the current environment as described in the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section below.

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Our Business

Overview

We develop, market, sell and distribute energy drink beverages and concentrates for energy drink beverages, primarily under the following brand names:

     Monster Energy®

     Monster Energy Ultra®

     Monster Rehab®

     Monster Energy® Nitro

     Java Monster®

     Muscle Monster®

     Espresso Monster®

     Punch Monster®

     Juice Monster®

     Monster Hydro® Energy Water

     Monster Hydro® Super Sport

     Monster HydroSport Super Fuel®

     Monster Super Fuel®

     Monster Dragon Tea®

     Reign Total Body Fuel®

     Reign Inferno® Thermogenic Fuel

    

     NOS®

     Full Throttle®

     Burn®

     Mother®

     Nalu®

     Ultra Energy®

     Play® and Power Play® (stylized)

     Relentless®

     BPM®

     BU®

     Gladiator®

     Samurai®

     Live+®

     Predator®

     Fury®

     True North®

The comparative results of operations for the twelve-months ended December 31, 2020 included a non-recurring tax benefit of approximately $165.1 million due to an intra-entity transfer of intangible assets between certain of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries, which resulted in a step-up of the tax-deductible basis in the transferred assets in a foreign jurisdiction, and created a temporary difference between the tax basis and the book basis for such intangible assets (the “Non-Recurring Tax Benefit”), as well as reduced marketing, sponsorships and certain other operating expenses, largely as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. These items should be taken into consideration when evaluating comparative performance for the twelve-months ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the twelve-months ended December 31, 2020.

Our net sales of $5.5 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021 represented record annual net sales. The comparative net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to product returns from our customers as a result of a European formulation issue with a limited number of products in Europe and a labeling issue concerning one product in Japan (the “Product Returns”). Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on net sales of approximately $61.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

The vast majority of our net sales are derived from our Monster Energy® Drinks segment. Net sales of our Monster Energy® Drinks segment were $5.22 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. Net sales of our Strategic Brands segment were $294.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our Monster Energy® Drinks segment represented 94.2% and 93.6% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our Strategic Brands segment represented 5.3% and 5.8% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our Other segment represented 0.5% and 0.6% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The comparative net sales for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to the Product Returns.

Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on our net sales of the Monster Energy® Drinks segment of approximately $57.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Net changes in foreign currency

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exchange rates had a favorable impact on net sales in the Strategic Brands segment of approximately $4.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Our growth strategy includes expanding our international business. Net sales to customers outside the United States amounted to $2.04 billion, $1.51 billion and $1.33 billion for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Such sales were approximately 37%, 33% and 32% of net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The comparative net sales to customers outside the United States for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to the Product Returns.

Our customers are primarily full service beverage bottlers/distributors, retail grocery and specialty chains, wholesalers, club stores, mass merchandisers, convenience chains, foodservice customers, value stores, e-commerce retailers and the military. Percentages of our gross billings to our various customer types for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are reflected below. Such information includes sales made by us directly to the customer types concerned, which include our full service beverage bottlers/distributors in the United States. Such full service beverage bottlers/distributors in turn sell certain of our products to some of the same customer types listed below. We limit our description of our customer types to include only our sales to our full service bottlers/distributors without reference to such bottlers/distributors’ sales to their own customers.

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

U.S. full service bottlers/distributors

 

51%

56%

58%

International full service bottlers/distributors

 

39%

34%

33%

Club stores and e-commerce retailers

 

8%

8%

7%

Retail grocery, direct convenience, specialty chains and wholesalers

 

1%

1%

1%

Direct value stores and other

 

1%

1%

1%

Our customers include Coca-Cola Canada Bottling Limited, Coca-Cola Consolidated, Inc., Coca-Cola Bottling Company United, Inc., Reyes Coca-Cola Bottling, LLC, Great Lakes Coca-Cola Distribution, LLC, Coca-Cola Southwest Beverages LLC, The Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Northern New England, Inc., Swire Pacific Holdings, Inc. (USA), Liberty Coca-Cola Beverages, LLC, Coca-Cola Europacific Partners, Coca-Cola Hellenic, Coca-Cola FEMSA, Coca-Cola Amatil, Swire Coca-Cola (China), COFCO Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Beverages Africa, Coca-Cola İçecek and certain other TCCC network bottlers, Asahi Soft Drinks, Co., Ltd., Wal-Mart, Inc. (including Sam’s Club), Costco Wholesale Corporation and Amazon.com, Inc. A decision by any large customer to decrease amounts purchased from us or to cease carrying our products could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and consolidated results of operations.

Coca-Cola Consolidated, Inc. accounted for approximately 12%, 12% and 13% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Reyes Coca-Cola Bottling, LLC accounted for approximately 10%, 11% and 11% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Coca-Cola Europacific Partners accounted for approximately 12%, 10% and 10% of our net sales for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

We continue to incur expenditures in connection with the development and introduction of new products and flavors.

CANarchy Acquisition

On February 17, 2022, we completed our acquisition of CANarchy Craft Brewery Collective LLC (“CANarchy”), a craft beer and hard seltzer company, for $330.0 million in cash, subject to adjustments. The transaction allows us to enter the alcohol beverage

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sector and brings the Cigar City family of brands including Jai Alai IPA and Florida Man IPA, the Oskar Blues family of brands including Dale’s Pale Ale and Wild Basin Hard Seltzers, the Deep Ellum family of brands including Dallas Blonde and Deep Ellum IPA, the Perrin Brewing family of brands including Black Ale, the Squatters family of brands including Hop Rising Double IPA and Juicy IPA and the Wasatch family of brands including Apricot Hefeweizen to our beverage portfolio. The transaction does not include CANarchy’s stand-alone restaurants. Our organizational structure for our existing energy beverage business will remain unchanged. CANarchy will function independently, retaining its own organizational structure and team.

Value Drivers of our Business

We believe that the key value drivers of our business include the following:

International Growth – The introduction, development and sustained profitability of our brands internationally remains a key value driver for our corporate growth. One or more of our products are distributed in approximately 154 countries and territories worldwide.
Profitable Growth – We believe “functional” value-added beverage brands supported by marketing and innovation and targeted to a diverse consumer base, drive profitable growth. We are focused on increasing the profit margins for both our Monster Energy® Drinks segment and our Strategic Brands segment, and believe that tailored branding, packaging, pricing and distribution channel strategies help achieve profitable growth. We are implementing these strategies with a view to continuing profitable growth.
Cost Management – The principal focus of cost management will continue to be on mitigating increases and/or reducing input procurement and production costs on a per-case basis, including raw material costs and co-packing fees, as well as reducing freight costs by securing additional co-packing facilities strategically localized. Another key area of focus is to decrease promotional allowances, selling and general and administrative costs, including sponsorships, sampling, promotional and marketing expenses, as a percentage of net sales.
Efficient Capital Structure – Our capital structure is designed to optimize our working capital in order to finance expansion, both domestically and internationally. We believe that with our strong capital position, our ability to raise funds, if necessary, at a relatively low effective cost of borrowings, provides a competitive advantage. The reduction of days outstanding for accounts receivable and inventory days on hand will remain an area of focus.

We believe that, subject to increases in the costs of certain raw materials being contained, these value drivers, when implemented and/or achieved in the United States and internationally, will result in: (1) improving or maintaining our product gross profit margins; (2) providing additional leverage over time through reduced expenses as a percentage of net operating revenues; and (3) enhancing our cost of capital. The ultimate measure of success is and will be reflected in our current and future results of operations.

Net sales, gross profit, operating income, net income and net income per share represent key measurements of the above value drivers. These measurements will continue to be a key management focus in 2022 and beyond (See “Part II, Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Results of Operations”).

As of December 31, 2021, the Company had working capital of $3.72 billion compared to $2.39 billion as of December 31, 2020. The increase in working capital was primarily the result of the $1.38 billion of net income earned during the year ended December 31, 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our net cash provided by operating activities was approximately $1.16 billion as compared to $1.36 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Principal uses of cash flows in 2021, were purchases of investments, development of our Monster Energy® brand internationally and

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acquisitions of real property, property and equipment. These principal uses of cash flows are expected to be and remain our principal recurring use of cash and working capital funds in the future (See “Part II, Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources”).

Opportunities, Challenges and Risks

Looking forward, our management has identified certain challenges and risks for the beverage industry and the Company, including our significant commercial relationship with TCCC and TCCC’s status as a significant stockholder of the Company, in each case as described above under “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors.”

In addition, legislation has been proposed and/or adopted at the U.S., state, county and/or municipal level and proposed and/or adopted in certain foreign jurisdictions to restrict the sale of energy drinks (including prohibiting the sale of energy drinks at certain establishments or pursuant to certain governmental programs), limit caffeine content, require certain product labeling disclosures and/or warnings, impose taxes, limit product sizes or impose age restrictions for the sale of energy drinks. In addition, articles critical of the caffeine content in energy drinks and their perceived benefits and articles indicating certain health risks of energy drinks have been published. The proposal and/or adoption of such legislation and the publication of such articles, or the future proposal and/or adoption of similar legislation or publication of similar articles, may adversely affect our Company. In addition, uncertainty and/or volatility in our domestic and/or our international economic markets could negatively affect both the stability of our industry and our Company. Furthermore, our growth strategy includes expanding our international business, which exposes us to risks inherent in conducting international operations, including the risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Consumer discretionary spending also represents a challenge to the successful marketing and sale of our products. Increases in consumer and regulatory awareness of the health problems arising from obesity and inactive lifestyles continue to represent a challenge. We recognize that obesity is a complex and serious public health problem. Our commitment to consumers begins with our broad product line and a wide selection of diet, light and low calorie beverages within our energy drink product lines. We continuously strive to meet changing consumer needs through beverage innovation, choice and variety. (See “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors”).

Our historical success is attributable, in part, to our introduction of different and innovative beverages which have been positively accepted by consumers. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our continued ability to develop and introduce different and innovative beverages that meet consumer preferences, although there can be no assurance of our ability to do so. In order to retain and expand our market share, we must continue to develop and introduce different and innovative beverages and be competitive in the areas of price, quality, method of distribution, brand image and intellectual property protection. The beverage industry is subject to changing consumer preferences that may adversely affect us if we misjudge such preferences.

In addition, other key challenges and risks that could impact our Company’s future financial results include, but are not limited to:

the continuation or worsening of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the risks associated with the realization of benefits from our relationship with TCCC;
changes in consumer preferences and demand for our products;
economic uncertainty in the United States, Europe and other countries in which we operate;
the risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
maintenance of our brand image, product quality and corporate reputation;
increasing concern over various environmental, human rights and health matters, including obesity, caffeine consumption and energy drinks generally, and changes in regulation and consumer preferences in response to those concerns;

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profitable expansion and growth of our family of brands in the competitive market place (See “Part I, Item 1 – Business – Competition” and “Part I, Item 1 – Business – Sales and Marketing”);
costs of establishing and promoting our brands internationally;
the risks associated with entering into new sectors in the beverage industry, in particular the alcohol beverage sector, and making acquisitions to implement our growth strategy;
increases in costs of raw materials used by us;
restrictions on imports and sources of supply, duties or tariffs, changes in related government regulations and disruptions in the timely import or export of our products and/or ingredients including flavors, flavor ingredients and supplement ingredients, due to port strikes and/or port congestion, delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic, related labor issues or other importation impediments;
protection of our existing intellectual property portfolio of trademarks and copyrights and the continuous pursuit to develop and protect new and innovative trademarks and copyrights for our expanding product lines;
limitations on available quantities of aluminum cans;
the increased costs resulting from importing aluminum cans and other raw materials and ingredients;
limitations on co-packing availability;
increases in ocean and domestic freight rates;
shortages of shipping containers and port congestion;
the long-term impact of Brexit on our business in Europe and the United Kingdom; and
the imposition of additional regulation, including regulation restricting the sale of energy drinks, limiting caffeine content in beverages, requiring product labeling and/or warnings, imposing excise taxes and/or sales taxes, and/or limiting product size and/or age restrictions.

See “Part I, Item 1A – Risk Factors” for additional information about risks and uncertainties facing our Company.

We believe that the following opportunities exist for us:

domestic and international growth potential of our products;
growth potential of the energy drink category, both domestically and internationally;
growth potential of the affordable energy drink category;
planned and future new product and product line introductions with the objective of increasing sales and/or contributing to higher profitability;
the introduction of new package formats designed to generate strong revenue growth;
package, pricing and channel opportunities to increase profitable growth;
effective strategic positioning to capitalize on industry growth;
broadening distribution/expansion opportunities in both domestic and international markets;
launching and/or relaunching our products and new products into new domestic and international markets and channels;
continued focus on reducing our cost base ; and
our entry into the alcohol category and development of our alcoholic portfolio.

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Results of Operations

This section of the Annual Report on Form 10-K generally discusses 2021 and 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020. A detailed discussion of 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019 that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

The following table sets forth key statistics for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

    

    

    

    

Percentage

Percentage

Change

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

    

21 vs. 20

    

20 vs. 19

Net sales1

$

5,541,352

$

4,598,638

$

4,200,819

20.5%

9.5%

Cost of sales

 

2,432,839

 

1,874,758

 

1,682,234

29.8%

11.4%

Gross profit*1

 

3,108,513

 

2,723,880

 

2,518,585

14.1%

8.2%

Gross profit as a percentage of net sales

 

56.1%

 

59.2%

 

60.0%

Operating expenses

 

1,311,046

 

1,090,727

 

1,115,646

20.2%

(2.2)%

Operating expenses as a percentage of net sales

 

23.7%

 

23.7%

 

26.6%

Operating income1

 

1,797,467

 

1,633,153

 

1,402,939

10.1%

16.4%

Operating income as a percentage of net sales

 

32.4%

 

35.5%

 

33.4%

Other income (expense), net

 

3,952

 

(6,996)

 

13,023

(156.5)%

(153.7)%

Income before provision for income taxes1

 

1,801,419

 

1,626,157

 

1,415,962

10.8%

14.8%

Provision for income taxes

 

423,944

 

216,563

 

308,127

95.8%

(29.7)%

Income taxes as a percentage of income before taxes

 

23.5%

 

13.3%

 

21.8%

Net income1

$

1,377,475

$

1,409,594

$

1,107,835

(2.3)%

27.2%

Net income as a percentage of net sales

 

24.9%

 

30.7%

 

26.4%

Net income per common share:

 

 

 

Basic

$

2.61

$

2.66

$

2.04

(2.1)%

30.3%

Diluted

$

2.57

$

2.64

$

2.03

(2.4)%

30.0%

Case sales (in thousands) (in 192‑ounce case equivalents)

 

613,441

 

504,821

 

448,770

21.5%

12.5%

¹Includes $41.5 million, $42.1 million and $46.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, related to the recognition of deferred revenue.

*Gross profit may not be comparable to that of other entities since some entities include all costs associated with their distribution process in cost of sales, whereas others exclude certain costs and instead include such costs within another line item such as operating expenses. We include out-bound freight and warehouse costs in operating expenses rather than in cost of sales.

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Net Sales

Net sales were $5.54 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $942.7 million, or 20.5% higher than net sales of $4.60 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net sales increased primarily due to increased worldwide sales by volume of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks as a result of increased consumer demand. Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on net sales of approximately $61.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The comparative net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to the Product Returns.

Net sales for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment were $5.22 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $915.4 million, or 21.3% higher than net sales of $4.31 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net sales for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment increased primarily due to increased worldwide sales by volume of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks as a result of increased consumer demand. Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on net sales for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment of approximately $57.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The comparative net sales for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to the Product Returns.

Net sales for the Strategic Brands segment were $294.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $28.4 million, or 10.7% higher than net sales of $266.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net sales for the Strategic Brands segment increased primarily due to increased worldwide sales by volume of our Predator®, Burn® and Mother® brand energy drinks as a result of increased consumer demand. Shortages of certain NOS® concentrates negatively impacted net sales for the year ended December 31, 2021. Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on net sales of approximately $4.3 million for the Strategic Brands segment for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Net sales for the Other segment were $25.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, a decrease of approximately $1.1 million, or 4.1% lower than net sales of $27.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Case sales, in 192-ounce case equivalents, were 613.4 million cases for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately 108.6 million cases or 21.5% higher than case sales of 504.8 million cases for the year ended December 31, 2020. The overall average net sales per case (excluding net sales of AFF Third-Party Products of $25.9 million and $27.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, as these sales do not have unit case equivalents) decreased to $8.99 for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was 0.7% lower than the average net sales per case of $9.06 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease in the average net sales per case was primarily the result of geographical sales mix.

Gross Profit

Gross profit was $3.11 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $384.6 million, or 14.1% higher than the gross profit of $2.72 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in gross profit dollars was primarily the result of the $942.7 million increase in net sales for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Gross profit as a percentage of net sales decreased to 56.1% for the year ended December 31, 2021 from 59.2% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease for the year ended December 31, 2021 was primarily the result of increased aluminum can costs attributable to higher aluminum commodity pricing, increased costs of certain other raw materials and ingredients, increased freight-in costs and geographical sales mix.

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Operating Expenses

Total operating expenses were $1.31 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $220.3 million, or 20.2% higher than total operating expenses of $1.09 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. As a percentage of net sales, operating expenses were 23.7% for both the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. The increase in operating expenses was primarily due to increased out-bound freight and warehouse costs of $86.1 million, increased payroll expenses of $42.5 million, increased expenditures of $38.1 million for sponsorships and endorsements, increased expenditures of $15.7 million for social media and digital marketing, and increased expenditures of $10.4 million for professional service expenses, including accounting and legal costs. The increase in operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2021, was partially offset by $16.9 million due to the reversal of amounts previously accrued in connection with an intellectual property claim. During the comparative 2020 period, the Company decreased expenditures for sponsorship and endorsements and decreased expenditures for travel and entertainment, each largely as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was less pronounced on our sales and marketing programs during the year ended December 31, 2021. Operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 (pre COVID-19) were $1.12 billion, or 26.6% of net sales.

Operating Income

Operating income was $1.80 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $164.3 million, or 10.1% higher than operating income of $1.63 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Operating income as a percentage of net sales decreased to 32.4% for the year ended December 31, 2021 from 35.5% for the year ended December 31, 2020. Operating income was $402.8 million and $279.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, for our operations in EMEA, Asia Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean. Operating income for the year ended December 31,2019 (pre COVID-19) was $1.4 billion, or 33.4% of net sales.

Operating income for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment, exclusive of corporate and unallocated expenses, was $1.99 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $170.4 million, or 9.4% higher than operating income of $1.82 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in operating income for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment was primarily the result of the $915.4 million increase in net sales for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Operating income for the Strategic Brands segment, exclusive of corporate and unallocated expenses, was $173.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $18.6 million, or 12.0% higher than operating income of $155.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in operating income for the Strategic Brands segment was primarily the result of the $28.4 million increase in net sales.

Operating income for the Other segment, exclusive of corporate and unallocated expenses, was $6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $1.0 million, or 16.9% higher than operating income of $5.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Other Income (Expense), net

Other income (expense), net, was $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to other income (expense), net, of ($7.0) million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) were $0.3 million and ($11.2) million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Interest income was $4.2 million and $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

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Provision for Income Taxes

Provision for income taxes was $423.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $207.4 million, or 95.8% higher than the provision for income taxes of $216.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The effective combined federal, state and foreign tax rate was 23.5% and 13.3% for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The comparative provision for income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2020 included the Non-Recurring Tax Benefit of approximately $165.1 million.

Net Income

Net income was $1.38 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, a decrease of $32.1 million, or 2.3% lower than net income of $1.41 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease in net income for the year ended December 31, 2021 was primarily due to the $207.4 million increase in the provision for income taxes and the $220.3 million increase in operating expenses, partially offset by the $393.1 million increase in gross profit.

Key Business Metrics

We use certain key metrics and financial measures not prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) to evaluate and manage our business. For a further discussion of how we use key metrics and certain non-GAAP financial measures, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Other Key Metrics” below.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Other Key Metrics

Gross Billings**

Gross billings were $6.42 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $1.10 billion, or 20.6% higher than gross billings of $5.33 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on gross billings of approximately $83.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The comparative gross billings for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to the Product Returns.

Gross billings for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment were $6.06 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $1.06 billion, or 21.3% higher than gross billings of $5.00 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. Gross billings for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment increased primarily due to increased worldwide sales by volume of our Monster Energy® brand energy drinks as a result of increased consumer demand. Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on gross billings for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment of approximately $78.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The comparative gross billings for the Monster Energy® Drinks segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 were negatively impacted by $15.2 million related to the Product Returns.

Gross billings for the Strategic Brands segment were $340.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $34.8 million, or 11.4% higher than gross billings of $305.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Shortages of NOS® concentrate negatively impacted gross billings for the year ended December 31, 2021. Net changes in foreign currency exchange rates had a favorable impact on gross billings in the Strategic Brands segment of approximately $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Gross billings for the Other segment were $25.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, a decrease of $1.1 million, or 4.1% lower than gross billings of $27.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Promotional allowances, commissions and other expenses, as described in the footnote below, were $924.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $152.6 million, or 19.8% higher than promotional allowances,

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commissions and other expenses of $772.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Promotional allowances as a percentage of gross billings decreased to 12.8% from 13.1% for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

**Gross billings represent amounts invoiced to customers net of cash discounts and returns. Gross billings are used internally by management as an indicator of and to monitor operating performance, including sales performance of particular products, salesperson performance, product growth or declines and is useful to investors in evaluating overall Company performance. The use of gross billings allows evaluation of sales performance before the effect of any promotional items, which can mask certain performance issues. We therefore believe that the presentation of gross billings provides a useful measure of our operating performance. The use of gross billings is not a measure that is recognized under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to net sales, which is determined in accordance with GAAP, and should not be used alone as an indicator of operating performance in place of net sales. Additionally, gross billings may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies, as gross billings has been defined by our internal reporting practices. In addition, gross billings may not be realized in the form of cash receipts as promotional payments and allowances may be deducted from payments received from certain customers.

The following table reconciles the non-GAAP financial measure of gross billings with the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure of net sales:

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

Percentage

    

Percentage

In thousands

 

Change

Change

 

2021

 

2020

 

2019

 

21 vs. 20

20 vs. 19

Gross Billings

$

6,424,632

$

5,328,683

$

4,821,411

 

20.6%

10.5%

Deferred Revenue

41,462

42,110

46,287

(1.5%)

(9.0%)

Less: Promotional allowances, commissions and other expenses***

 

(924,742)

 

(772,155)

 

(666,879)

 

19.8%

15.8%

Net Sales

$

5,541,352

$

4,598,638

$

4,200,819

 

20.5%

9.5%

***Although the expenditures described in this line item are determined in accordance with GAAP and meet GAAP requirements, the presentation thereof does not conform to GAAP presentation requirements. Additionally, our definition of promotional and other allowances may not be comparable to similar items presented by other companies. Promotional and other allowances primarily include consideration given to our bottlers/distributors or retail customers including, but not limited to the following: (i) discounts granted off list prices to support price promotions to end-consumers by retailers; (ii) reimbursements given to our bottlers/distributors for agreed portions of their promotional spend with retailers, including slotting, shelf space allowances and other fees for both new and existing products; (iii) our agreed share of fees given to bottlers/distributors and/or directly to retailers for advertising, in-store marketing and promotional activities; (iv) our agreed share of slotting, shelf space allowances and other fees given directly to retailers, club stores and/or wholesalers; (v) incentives given to our bottlers/distributors and/or retailers for achieving or exceeding certain predetermined sales goals; (vi) discounted or free products; (vii) contractual fees given to our bottlers/distributors related to sales made by us direct to certain customers that fall within the bottlers’/distributors’ sales territories; and (viii) certain commissions paid based on sales to our bottlers/distributors. The presentation of promotional and other allowances facilitates an evaluation of their impact on the determination of net sales and the spending levels incurred or correlated with such sales. Promotional and other allowances constitute a material portion of our marketing activities. Our promotional allowance programs with our numerous bottlers/distributors and/or retailers are executed through separate agreements in the ordinary course of business. These agreements generally provide for one or more of the arrangements described above and are of varying durations, ranging from one week to one year. The primary drivers of our promotional and other allowance activities for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were (i) to increase sales volume and trial, (ii) to address market conditions, and (iii) to secure shelf and display space at retail.

Sales

The table set forth below discloses selected quarterly data regarding sales for the past three years. Data from any one or more quarters is not necessarily indicative of annual results or continuing trends.

Sales of beverages are expressed in unit case volume. A “unit case” means a unit of measurement equal to 192 U.S. fluid ounces of finished beverage (24 eight-ounce servings). Unit case volume means the number of unit cases (or unit case equivalents) of finished products or concentrates, as if converted into finished products, sold by us.

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Our quarterly results of operations reflect seasonal trends that are primarily the result of increased demand in the warmer months of the year. It has been our experience that beverage sales tend to be lower during the first and fourth quarters of each calendar year. In addition, our experience with our energy drink products suggests they are less seasonal than the seasonality expected from traditional beverages. Quarterly fluctuations may also be affected by other factors including the introduction of new products, the opening of new markets where temperature fluctuations are more pronounced, the addition of new bottlers/distributors and customers, changes in the sales mix of our products and changes in and/or increased advertising and promotional expenses. (See “Part I, Item 1 – Business – Seasonality”).

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

Net Sales (in Thousands)

Quarter 1

$

1,243,816

$

1,062,097

$

945,991

Quarter 2

 

1,461,934

 

1,093,896

 

1,104,045

Quarter 3

 

1,410,557

 

1,246,362

 

1,133,577

Quarter 4

 

1,425,045

 

1,196,283

 

1,017,206

Total

$

5,541,352

$

4,598,638

$

4,200,819

Less: AFF third party net sales (in Thousands)

Quarter 1

$

(5,727)

$

(5,105)

$

(5,321)

Quarter 2

 

(7,905)

 

(6,644)

 

(5,791)

Quarter 3

 

(6,316)

 

(8,618)

 

(5,860)

Quarter 4

 

(5,969)

 

(6,671)

 

(4,893)

Total

$

(25,917)

$

(27,038)

$

(21,865)

Adjusted Net Sales (in Thousands)¹

Quarter 1

$

1,238,089

$

1,056,992

$

940,670

Quarter 2

 

1,454,029

 

1,087,252

 

1,098,254

Quarter 3

 

1,404,241

 

1,237,744

 

1,127,717

Quarter 4

 

1,419,076

 

1,189,612

 

1,012,313

Total

$

5,515,435

$

4,571,600

$

4,178,954

Case Volume / Sales (in Thousands)

Quarter 1

 

138,566

 

115,598

 

101,284

Quarter 2

 

161,450

 

116,960

 

119,595

Quarter 3

 

159,975

 

139,922

 

121,854

Quarter 4

 

153,450

 

132,341

 

106,037

Total

 

613,441

 

504,821

 

448,770

Adjusted Average Net Sales Per Case

Quarter 1

$

8.94

$

9.14

$

9.29

Quarter 2

 

9.01

 

9.30

 

9.18

Quarter 3

 

8.78

 

8.85

 

9.25

Quarter 4

 

9.25

 

8.99

 

9.55

Total

$

8.99

$

9.06

$

9.31

1Excludes Other segment net sales of $25.9 million, $27.0 million and $21.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, comprised of sales of our AFF Third-Party Products to independent third parties as these sales do not have unit case equivalents.

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The following represents case sales by segment for the years ended December 31:

(In thousands, except average net sales per case)

   

2021

   

2020

 

2019

Net sales

$

5,541,352

$

4,598,638

$

4,200,819

Less: AFF third-party sales

 

(25,917)

 

(27,038)

 

(21,865)

Adjusted net sales1

$

5,515,435

$

4,571,600

$

4,178,954

Case sales by segment:

 

 

 

Monster Energy® Drinks

 

520,577

 

428,596

 

377,551

Strategic Brands

 

92,864

 

76,225

 

71,219

Other

 

 

 

Total case sales

 

613,441

 

504,821

 

448,770

Average net sales per case

$

8.99

$

9.06

$

9.31

1Excludes Other segment net sales of $25.9 million, $27.0 million and $21.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, comprised of sales of our AFF Third-Party Products to independent third parties as these sales do not have unit case equivalents.

Inflation

Inflation had a negative impact on our results of operations, leading to increased cost of sales and operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2021. Inflation did not have a significant impact on our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 or 2019.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash and cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments – As of December 31, 2021, we had $1.33 billion in cash and cash equivalents, $1.75 billion in short-term investments and $99.4 million in long-term investments, including certificates of deposit, commercial paper, U.S. government agency securities, U.S. treasuries, and to a lesser extent, municipal securities. We maintain our investments for cash management purposes and not for purposes of speculation. Our risk management policies emphasize credit quality (primarily based on short-term ratings by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations) in selecting and maintaining our investments. We regularly assess market risk of our investments and believe our current policies and investment practices adequately limit those risks. However, certain of these investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market and interest rate risks. These risks associated with our investment portfolio may have an adverse effect on our future results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.

Of our $1.33 billion of cash and cash equivalents held at December 31, 2021, $608.6 million was held by our foreign subsidiaries. No short-term or long-term investments were held by our foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2021.

We believe that cash available from operations, including our cash resources and our revolving line of credit, will be sufficient for our working capital needs, including purchase commitments for raw materials and inventory, increases in accounts receivable, payments of tax liabilities, expansion and development needs, purchases of shares of our common stock, as well as purchases of capital assets, equipment and properties, through at least the next 12 months. Based on our current plans, capital expenditures (exclusive of common stock repurchases) are currently estimated to be approximately $150.0 million through December 31, 2022. However, future business opportunities may cause a change in this estimate.

Purchases of inventories, increases in accounts receivable and other assets, acquisition of property and equipment (including real property, personal property and coolers), leasehold improvements, advances for or the purchase of equipment for our bottlers, acquisition and maintenance of trademarks, payments of accounts payable, income taxes payable and purchases of our common stock are expected to remain our principal recurring use of cash.

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The following summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

Net cash provided by (used in):

    

    

    

 

2021

 

2020

 

2019

Operating activities

$

1,155,741

$

1,364,163

$

1,113,762

Investing activities

$

(992,022)

$

(472,487)

$

(326,724)

Financing activities

$

34,821

$

(526,068)

$

(628,506)

Cash flows provided by operating activities. Cash provided by operating activities was $1.16 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared with cash provided by operating activities of $1.36 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to net income earned of $1.38 billion and adjustments for certain non-cash expenses, consisting of $50.2 million of depreciation and amortization, and $70.5 million of stock-based compensation. For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash provided by operating activities also increased due to a $114.3 million increase in accounts payable, a $71.6 million increase in accrued liabilities, a $31.5 million increase in accrued promotional allowances, a $16.4 million increase in deferred income taxes, an $8.0 million increase in accrued compensation and a $7.2 million increase in income taxes payable. For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash used in operating activities was primarily attributable a $277.8 million increase in inventories, a $254.2 million increase in accounts receivable, a $29.3 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, a $22.7 million decrease in deferred revenue and a $10.9 million increase in prepaid income taxes.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to net income earned of $1.41 billion and adjustments for certain non-cash expenses, consisting of $57.0 million of depreciation and amortization, $70.3 million of stock-based compensation and $8.7 million of intangible impairments. For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash provided by operating activities also increased due to a $30.3 million decrease in inventories, a $26.4 million increase in accrued liabilities, an $18.7 million increase in accounts payable, a $13.8 million increase in accrued promotional allowances, a $10.4 million increase in income taxes payable, a $7.5 million increase in accrued compensation, a $5.5 million decrease in prepaid income taxes and a $1.0 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other assets. For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash used in operating activities was primarily attributable to a $156.9 million increase in deferred income taxes, a $120.1 million increase in accounts receivable and a $21.5 million decrease in deferred revenue.

Cash flows used in investing activities. Net cash used in investing activities was $992.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to cash used in investing activities of $472.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

For both the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, cash provided by investing activities was primarily attributable to sales of available-for-sale investments. For both the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, cash used in investing activities was primarily attributable to purchases of available-for-sale investments. For both the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, cash used in investing activities also included the acquisition of fixed assets consisting of vans and promotional vehicles, coolers and other equipment to support our marketing and promotional activities, production equipment, furniture and fixtures, office and computer equipment, real property, computer software, equipment used for sales and administrative activities, certain leasehold improvements, improvements to real property as well as the acquisition, defense and maintenance of trademarks. We expect to continue to use a portion of our cash in excess of our requirements for operations for purchasing short-term and long-term investments, leasehold improvements, the acquisition of capital equipment (specifically, vans, trucks and promotional vehicles, coolers, other promotional equipment, merchandise displays, warehousing racks as well as items of production equipment required to produce certain of our existing and/or new products and to develop our brand in international markets) and for other corporate purposes. From time to time, we may also use cash to purchase additional real property related to our beverage business and/or acquire compatible businesses.

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Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities. Cash provided by financing activities was $34.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to cash used in financing activities of ($526.1) million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The cash flows provided by financing activities for both the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020 was primarily attributable to the issuance of our common stock related to stock-based compensation. The cash flows used in financing activities for both the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was primarily the result of the repurchases of our common stock related to stock-based compensation.

The following represents a summary of the Company’s contractual commitments and related scheduled maturities as of December 31, 2021:

Payments due by period (in thousands)

    

    

Less than

    

1‑3 

    

3‑5 

    

More than

Obligations

Total

1 year

 

years

 

years

 

5 years

Contractual Obligations1

$

305,053

$

236,698

$

68,345

$

10

$

Finance Leases

 

1,006

 

964

 

34

 

8

 

Operating Leases

 

24,714

 

4,605

 

6,799

 

3,361